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CONTEXTUAL STUDY Film editing is the skill of accumulating different shots so that they become a comprehensible sequence. Usually film editing is referred to as the “invisible art” due to the fact that when done well, the audience are so hooked that they are not even aware of the editing that has taken place. The first ever motion picture was created by Eadweard Muybridge in 1978 Called The Horse In Motion and was an array of still shots of a racing horse when edited together and ran through created the first motion picture. In 1891 Thomas Edison created the Kinetoscope, a Kinetoscope is a motion picture exhibition apparatus that was constructed for one person to be able to view a film through a peephole-‐viewing window at the top. In 1985 the Lumiére brothers created the Cinématographe, which is a camera with a projector and a printer, with this they used a film speed of 16 frames per second a big jump from Edison’s 48 frames per second. One of the brothers Louis then came up with the idea to consolidate the principle of intermittent moving, Edison originally rejected this and now this has been one of the Lumiére brothers best idea and kept it a secret until they did a public screening on 22nd March 1895. Edwin S. Porter started having a storyline within a film and came up with The Train Robbery. Then there was D.W. Griffith who revolutionized continuity within editing; he is the maker of “invisible editing” which I wrote about earlier; many say that Griffiths invented techniques like parallel editing. Influenced by D.W. Griffith was Lev Kuleshov, he liked to get more meaning across by making it that each shot relates to one another and show the development of characters, situations or things he showed through showing a shot of a mans face and then a girl in a coffin he then shows the same face again but once before a bowl of soup and one before a lady lounging on a chair, changing the different following shots to the face makes the audience see the expression different each time even though it is exactly the same this is known as the Kuleshov Effect. Here is a video of it : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gGl3LJ7vHc Finally in the 1920’s Sergei Eisenstein and his partner Dziga Vertov showed the idea of Montage; Montage in French means to assemble. The montage is used to create a big impact on the audience so they can experience more in one moment, and manipulate the audience’s idea of time. Many others in film say that these techniques are quite a big part of making what film is today. A good example of this would be Carls and his wifes life story from Up (2009) à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2bk_9T482g This is also like juxtapositioning where they place to shots, characters or objects together to either show a relationship, show a contrast or to compare them. An example of this would be In Making Christmas scene within The Nightmare before Christmas |(1993) where it compares the Halloweens town preparing for Christmas and the elves version à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lnuC9c2iMg
TALIA MURPHY In camera editing is a technique that was first used in 1896 in The Vanishing Lady à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7-‐x93QagJU this is where they just shoot the film in the precise order so that they don’t have to edit it at the end . Linear filming can be seen in most movies this is when the storyline has a simple structure as just goes from A to B. However nowadays its more common for films to use a non-‐linear structure this is when they either use a flash back or flash forward to show something that may have occurred that will be important to the storyline an example of this could be Snapes Memories scenes within Harry Potter and the Deathly Haloows Part Two à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHolRZeQNG4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqyf-‐kJWwIg Another technique would be Shot reverse shot this is generally used to show two peoples faces within a conversation by showing only one face at a time and going back and forth this is used so that the audience can see the characters reactions to the conversations more aswell as set more of an atmosphere and example of this would be In The Perks of being a Wallflower when Sam is talking to Charlie from 0:55 – 1:16 à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgVPTU-‐KYyM Match on action is another technique this is when they shoot and action from one angle and in the next shot we continue to see this action but from a different angle this is normally used to show the impact the action has created or to see where the scene is going because of the action, this can be seen in the Sherlock Holmes film within the fight scene when Sherlock punches the other competitor from 1:40 – 1:55à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGCMfprPJoA Jump cuts are usually used to give the scene a speed by maybe doing lots of jump cuts to show how fast it is going a example of this one would be the opening within City Of God à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4HUydk0kII this one is effective as it really gives off the atmosphere that the acting and music gives you making it an overall more dynamic opening . Parallel editing is used to show visual linkage showing an action before cutting and showing one very similar these are normally used to show relationships between people or places an example would be The ball/phone catch from Hook The 180° rule would be the next technique is a instruction when filming an on-‐ screen spatial relation ship between a character and another character or object
TALIA MURPHY within a scene. An example of this is in Spiderman à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5oYHnr6QiF8 Eye line Match is used to show when someone is looking at something it normally starts with a shot of the person looking off camera and then what they are looking at this is effective as the close up of there face before normally makes us want to see what they are looking at depending on their emotion and good example of this is in Sucker Punch (2011) when she is looking at the map in the Lobotomized Vegetable scene from 1:14 -‐ 1:33 à https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmXG0dDrNQc References History information from : http://www.slideshare.net/katierothery/history-‐of-‐editing http://www.infoplease.com/cig/movies-‐flicks-‐film/fade-‐brief-‐history-‐ editing.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uahjH2cspk Editing terms : http://www.learner.org/interactives/cinema/editing2.html all videos from : https://www.youtube.com \