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Civil Services Examination 2013 Target 2013
Conventional General Studies-41 Concepts, Facts and Protection Framework of Biodiversity of India--1
The Biodiversity Concepts
diversity of life in all its formsȄ ǡ ǡ Ǥ Ǥ ͶͲ Ǥǡ ǡ Ǥ x
The United Nations designated 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.
ǡ Ǥ ǡ Latitudinal Diversity Gradientȋ ȌǤTerrestrial biodiversity is up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity.
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction or K-T extinction, or K-Pg extinctionǣ ͷǤͷǤ Ǧ Ǥ Mammals and birds emerged as dominant land vertebrates in the age of new life.
Ecosystem services Ecosystem services are processes by which the environment produces benefits useful to people, akin to economic services. They include: Þ Provision of clean water and air Þ Pollination of crops Þ Mitigation of environmental hazards Þ Pest and disease control Þ Carbon sequestration Accounting for the way in which ecosystems provide economic goods is an increasingly popular area of development. The concept of ecosystem services is similar to that of natural capital. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment released in 2005 showed that 60% of ecosystem services are being degraded or used unsustainably
What are Invasive species? Invasive species are those that are introduced—intentionally or unintentionally—to an ecosystem in which they do not naturally appear and which threaten habitats, ecosystems, or native species. These species become invasive due to their high reproduction rates and by competing with and displacing native species, that naturally appear in that ecosystem. Unintentional introduction can be the result of accidents (e.g. when species escape from a zoo), transport (e.g. in the ballast water of a ship); intentional introduction can be the result of e.g. importing animals or plants or the genetic modification of organisms.
Concept of Ecosystem Approach Ǧ Ǧ Ȅ ǡǡǡǡǡ Ǥ Ǥ ǡ Ǥ Approach places human needs at the centre of biodiversity managementǤIt aims to manage the ecosystem, based on the multiple functions that ecosystems perform and the multiple uses that are made of these functionsǤThe ecosystem approach does not aim for short-term economic gains, but aims to optimize the use of an ecosystem without damagingǤ
Conventional General Studies-41 www.gktoday.in Concepts, Facts and Protection Framework of Biodiversity of India--1 Target 2013 6 Parties to the CBD ͳͻ͵ Ȁ Ǥ Ǥǫ Ǥ
CBD – Important Provisions ʹ͵Ͷʹ Ǥ ǣ Þ
Sovereign rights of States
Responsibility of States to conserve and sustainable use their biodiversity
Conventional General Studies-41 www.gktoday.in Concepts, Facts and Protection Framework of Biodiversity of India--1 Target 2013 7 Þ close and traditional dependence of indigenous and local communities on biological resources and the need to ensure that these communities share in the benefits arising from the use of their traditional knowledge and practices relating to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. National action under the CBD
India after extensive consultative process had enacted Biological Diversity Act in 2002 for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD. The same is true for many other developing countries also. However, in the near absence of user country measures, once the resource leaves the country providing the resources, there is no way to ensure compliance of ABS provisions in the country where it is used. Towards this, a protocol on access and benefit sharing was negotiated at Nagoya, Japan in October 2010. This is called Nagoya Protocol.
national biodiversity strategies and action plansǡǤ ǡ ǡǡǡǤ ǣ Þ
What are obligations of the countries under the Nagoya Protocol? ǡǦ Ǥ Obligations related to access to genetic resources
Andaman & Nicobar Island Coastal region North East Region Gangetic Plains Deccan Plateau Western Ghats Semi Arid Region Indian Desert Zone Himalayan Zone Transhimalayan Region Total *Of total geographic area
0.3 2.5 5.2 10.8 42 4 16.6 6.6 6.4 5.6 100
Transhimalayan Region, 5.6
Andaman & Nicobar Island, 0.3
Coastal regiion , 2.5 North East Region , 5.2
Himalayan Zone, 6.4 Indian Desert Zone, 6.6
Gangetic Plains, 10.8 Semi Arid Region, 16.6
Western Ghats, 4
Deccan Plateau, 42
Trans-Himalayan Region 9 ͷǤ ǡ ǡ ǡ Ƭǡǡ Ǥ 9 biggest populations of wild sheep and goat in the world includes Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and the migratory Blacknecked Crane (Grus nigricollis). 9 Ǥ
Majority of the forests are deciduous in nature Ǥ ǡ Ǥ
Andaman and Nicobar Islands x ͲǤ͵ ǤThe islands house an array of flora and fauna not found elsewhere. x
̵ Ǥ ǡ endemic island biodiversity is found only in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Establishment of State Biodiversity Board 9 Ǥ ǡ Ǥ 9 ǡ Ǥ 9 The state board also will regulate by granting of approvals or otherwise requests for commercial utilization or bio-survey and bio-utilization of any biological resource by Indians. 9 All Indians are required to provide prior intimation to State Biodiversity Boards for obtaining biological material for commercial purposes in a state. 9 vaids and hakims Ǥ
Biodiversity Management Committee local body shall ǡ ǡ ǡ ǡ Ǥ Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-section,–
"cultivar" means a variety of plant that has originated and persisted under cultivation or was specifically bred for the purpose of cultivation;
"folk variety" means a cultivated variety of plant that was developed, grown and exchanged informally among farmers;
“landrace” means primitive cultivar that was grown by ancient farmers and their successors.
relating to the use of biological resources and knowledge jurisdiction of the Biodiversity Management Committee. Biodiversity Management Committees may levy charges by way of collection fees from any person for accessing or collecting any biological resource for commercial purposes
Other observations in Biodiversity Act 9 ǡ ǡ ǡ appeal to the Central Government Ǥ 9 Ǥ 9 Ǥ ǡ ǡ
natural habitats; 9 "in situ conservation" means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the Ǣ Ǧ maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties.
Ǥ ǡ here please note that a resolution is passed and no need to pass an act for alternation of the boundaries.
How a National Park is declared? Þ Ǥ Þ
UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme was launched in 1971 with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary research, training, and communications in the field of ecosystem conservation and the rational use of natural resources. The MAB Programme is suited to respond to the results of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and especially the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Ǥ Ǥ Biosphere reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and
Conventional General Studies-41 www.gktoday.in Concepts, Facts and Protection Framework of Biodiversity of India--1 Target 2013 22 Þ no human activity is allowed inside a national park, while limited activities are permitted within the sanctuary. Þ
, limited economic activity (sand and stone mining) is permittedǤ
A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation and should include additional land and water suitable for research and demonstration of sustainable methods of research and management. all trophic levels in the ecosystemǤ Secondary Criteria
Areas having rare and endangered species
Areas having diversity of soil and micro-climatic conditions and indigenous varieties of biota.
Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of environment.
Biosphere Reserves States Gujarat Tamil Nadu West Bengal Uttaranchal Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka Arunachal Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Orissa Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh Sikkim Kerala Andaman and Nicobar Islands Meghalaya Assam Himachal Pradesh The hill ranges spread in parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh have been designated as Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve in Andhra Pradesh on 20th September, 2010. Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh
Type Semi-Arid Coasts Gigantic Delta West Himalayas Western Ghats East Himalayas Semi-Arid Deccan Peninsula Semi-Arid East Himalayas East Himalayas Western ghats Islands East Himalayas East Himalayas West Himalayas Eastern Ghats
Area 12454 10500 9630 5860 5520 5112 4926 4374 3835 2837 2620 1701 885 820 765 NA 4755
The below compendium is based upon the Schedule 1 of the Wild Life Protection Act 1972. It continues in the next Module. Kindly don’t mug any information as the notable points have been italicized or made bold. If any of them gives you interest, you can surf more about them. Its worth note that every year, there is at least one question in your exam is based upon these members of our wildlife. In some years, I have seen as many as three questions.
Conventional General Studies-41 www.gktoday.in Concepts, Facts and Protection Framework of Biodiversity of India--1 Target 2013 26 Þ Despite its name, the crab-eating macaque does not only eat crabs and in fact at least 50% of the crab-eating macaque's diet is made up from fruits, nuts and seeds. Þ
There is another variety of River dolphins found in South Asia called Indus River Dolphin (Platanista minor minor). It is found in Indus river in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries. Both Ganges River Dolphin and Indus river Dolphin are now taxonomically considered one species since 1998
Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal (7 states ) and ideal habitats are in the Ganga, Chambal, Ghaghra, Gandak, Sone, Kosi, the Brahmaputra and Kulsi rivers. Þ
Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) Þ ̵ ǡǡǡǦ Ǥ ǡ ǤIndian Wild Ass Sanctuary located in the Little Rann of Kutch is the largest wildlife sanctuary in India Þ
ʹ͵ǡ ͳͲʹ ǡǤ (To be continued in SGS – 42)
This document includes observations from State of Environment Report 2009, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, State of Forests Report 2011 and Documents of Ministry of Environment and other resources such as wikipedia and world fact book.