the Big idea: Earth is part of a system of fast-moving objects in space. Earth rotates on its axis, Earth revolves around the Sun, and the Moon revolves ... Other suitable comprehension skills: Compare and contrast; classify information; main idea ..
Relative positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun changes over a 28 day period. New Moon - moon is between Earth and Sun (illuminated side not visible).
The Earth, Moon and Sun. Earth. Earth completes a rotation on its axis once every 24 hours. A rotation is a spin. The axis is an imaginary line passing through ...
other. STEP 4. STEP 3. STEP 2. STEP 1. Relative Sizes of Earth, the Moon, and the .... remapped periodically to pinpoint its location. ... Jupiter are planets. .... Recall that Earth's orbit around the Sun is an ellipse. ...... curved mirror to focus
Visit www.sciencea-z.com. Earth, Moon,. Sun, and Stars. A Science AâZ Earth Series. Word Count: 403 www.sciencea-z.com. Written by Alyse Sweeney. Earth,.
Use the paper cut-outs provided to build a model of the Solar System (Sun, Earth, and Moon only). This model is your âhypothesis.â Fill out the questions below ...
Aug 2, 2016 - Involves the ability to generate new ideas and concepts that have value to the individual or others, and .... TLC Elementary School: The Moon and Beyond (Discovery Education) ... moon, and a white space to serve as a snow-covered hill.
http://images.astronet.ru/pubd/2008/09/28/0001230882/425-439.pdf. 2. Study Figures 8 ... confidence in shared patterns I had noticed months earlier. It cannot be .... jumping through nearest-harmonics due to both deceleration & acceleration.
Like Earth, the moon turns on its axis. It takes about one month for the moon to complete one rotation. During the same period of time, the moon makes one ...
branching, intersecting, or moving diagonally. 2. Each bold-outlined region can be entered and exited only once. 3. Bold outlined regions contain moons or suns ...
Lesson Plan: How We Tell Time (Sun, Earth, Moon) School
Hillsmeade Primary School
Class/Date Yr. 3 11/09/15
2x 55 minutes
Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day (ACSSU048) Elaboration Describing timescales for the rotation of the Earth
Duration of Lesson
Science Inquiry Skills/Communicating Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS060)
Science as a Human Endeavour Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE051)
Mathematics/Measurement and Geometry Tell time to the minute and investigate the relationship between units of time (ACMMG062)
Science Conception/Teachers aid- 1) The calendar and astronomical events
2) Telling the time by the stars -See appendix Safety/Risk assessment
Earth ball/Tennis ball: Potential for students to throw around the classroom.
Compasses: Rope attached (trip on, pull while round student's neck).
Split pins: Sharp ends. Environment: Enough space to create a safe activity. Scissors: Sharp, need to be careful
1) To find out students concepts or misconceptions of day and night, time, calendars, planet Earth in space and the rotation of the Sun, Earth, Moon system.
2) Students to identify their own particular explanations, put the notion to the test to discover if it holds, use scientific modelling to test.
3) Introduce students to how the Earth spin’s on its axis is connected to days in our calendar. Months connected to the moon. Years to the seasons and Earth's rotation around the sun. Common alternative conceptions to address:
Earth is in the middle of the solar system; the planets and the sun orbit around it. The earth is closer to the sun in summer than what it is in winter. The changes in winter, summer, autumn and spring are caused by how far the earth is from the sun. The moon goes around the earth in 24 hours The sun is directly overhead at midday. During summer the amount of daylight increases each day. Seasons change because the way the earth is tilted changes.
Allen, M. (2014). Misconceptions in Primary Science. (2 edition). McGraw-Hill education.
Lucas, Keith B. & Cohen, Michael, R. (1999) The Changing Seasons: Teaching for Understanding. Australian Science Teachers Journal. v45 n4 p9-17. Mitchell, I. (2003). Children’s alternative conceptions in science. EDF3214 Moodle, Week 5, 2015: Monash University. Relevant background that has informed your plan for this lesson
Science at Hillsmeade Primary School is taught through a program called ‘Primary connections” that connects the curriculum with lesson plans that have been well thought out for student inquiry.
Students are able to acknowledge their prior understandings of the Earth itself and its relationship with the Sun.
Explicit Learning Objectives/Outco mes (curriculum links)
Use science inquiry skills to investigate how day and night, calendars and dates all relate back to the Sun, Moon, Earth system. To understand the relationship of space and time (timescales for the rotation of the Earth) with how we use it for our everyday lives. To comprehend we can use the Sun and other stars to tell us the time due to the Earth's rotation.
How time and calendars have changed how we live today.
Resources for classroom use:
Develop professional knowledge of practice. Gain experience and confidence in teaching science at a primary school level.
Use established characteristics of an exemplary science teacher into practice as a group. 4x torches
2x blow up Earth balls, 2x tennis balls Sticky notes (Name badges for students who are representing the months) 3x Compasses (North/South) Star clock printout / split pins. Thin cardboard to glue star clock too. Discussion pictures (Sun, Earth) Glue sticks/ paper/ pencils
Focus / Content/ Subject Matter
Teaching and learning activities: What is the teacher doing? What are the students doping?
1. Main ideas, concepts to be developed.
Students understanding on day and night.
How the calendar system is made relating to the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
What ancient cultures used to tell the time?
Rotation of the Earth in relation to the Sun.
2. Key questions to be used. Why do we have night and day?
If we didn't have clocks or alarm bells how would we know it's lunchtime? How could we tell the time at daytime/night time?
If it takes an entire year for the Earth to complete its orbit around the sun, How many times has the earth gone around the sun since they were born? In summer it is warmer and in winter it is colder, why and how do you think this happens?
Start the lesson with a whole group activity. Students to sit on the mat and be given a brief explanation that we will be investigating/learning more about where does the clock and calendar system come from? How ancient cultures told the time. On the whiteboard draw a graph for day/month/year. Ask students if they know how many hours are in a day? How many days are in
months? How many days in a year? (Scaffold students if they’re not sure).
someone’s age as having lived through a certain number of harvests.
Introduce time to the students with the connection of day and night. If we didn't have clocks or alarm bells how would we know it's lunchtime? If we didn’t have calendars how would we remember what day/date it is? What about our birthdays!!!!! Testing students’ conceptions on time and the calendar system invented using the Earth, Sun and Moon. Students are asked to draw and write on individual whiteboards or paper as to what they think ancient cultures did who had no electricity were able to tell the time, days, months, years. (Helping prompts- what causes night and day? What do we see at night?) Using student's pictures as the basis of a group discussion on their ideas behind this concept (using questions along with their drawings to find common misconceptions). It is important to introduce students to the idea that scientific theories are always undergoing change. Examples are discussed regarding the notion that many highly respected thinkers believed that the Earth was flat or saucer shaped (using examples so students are made to feel more comfortable about their own ideas). (Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mediterranean, Ancient India, Ancient China, all thought the Earth was flat and Earth was in the center of the Universe) Students Hypothesis Writing the key ideas produced on the main whiteboard, explain to students that today we are scientists; therefore we need to test our ideas to make sure we are right. Discuss with students that the time, days, months are all connected with the Sun, Earth, Moon and that many ancient cultures had to rely on the Sun and the Moon to tell the time and a year was calculated by when leaves sprout on a particular tree or describing
Split students up into two groups, minimum of 12 students with one teacher by using apples and oranges as names rather than numbers 1 and 2. (Apple group/Orange group)
Developmental activities: Putting students’ ideas to the test. Ask students if they believe using the earth ball, tennis ball and torch that they can make a model of the solar system. (Test their ideas out) Scaffold students working together to eventually create a model that works.
In the groups divided up, 12 students are to be given a month and its corresponding days on a post it notes to use as a name badge. In each group explain we are going to create our Sun, Earth, Moon system to test how our ideas of day and night fit into the model of our solar system and what the ancient cultures used.
Have one student, or the teacher as the sun in the centre and arrange students by calendar months as the Earth's orbit with starting at January holding the earth ball. One student can represent the Moon.
Using the Earth ball students can see that if we spin it around once it can resemble a day, but how do we resemble a month? (Use student's month name badges for the number of days in the month). Student’s can spin the Earth around the days before passing it to the next month. This needs to be done to get around a whole year of time. During the activity stop students to discuss
1) Discuss how ancient cultures use to use the moon as to be able to record the length of a month. (The word month comes from the word moon) They were close to a good system as the lunar cycle is 29.5 days long.
2) Discuss that the year is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds long but we only count 365 days a year because we can’t have a day only lasting 5 hours!!! (This then opens a discussion for a leap year) -how even the ancient Romans thought of this.
Introduce students to the idea that if we were in ancient times how would we go about telling the time?
Using the position of the sun can help us if we know where it sets and rises each day. What do we do at night then?
Show students with the torch the representation of the stars. What happens to the star in relation to the earth after 365 days? (it is in the same place each year).
Back to whole group to discuss these further.
Concluding activities: Findings
In the whole group, discuss our findings and ask students who wants to change their drawing/writing on the paper they did at the beginning of the lesson? Discuss that as scientists we wanted to start with our initial conceptions, test our ideas, and then modify them if they don't hold ground in the light of our new experience. We can call this research.
4. Extended Activity: Depending on the amount of time left in the class, further discuss with students about telling the time the way ancient cultures
did. While most students will know we can use the sun to help us have a rough idea on time, explain the concept further discussing how ancient cultures invented sundials for this.
Discussing how to do it at night with stars. The only simple yet accurate way of measuring a year is in relation to the stars. The stars appear in the night sky at different times and places depending on where the earth is in its orbit round the sun. A star observed in a given place - on the horizon at dawn, for example - will be there again exactly a year later. Like a sundial we can make a star clock that we can use to help us tell the time.
Explain to students how it works from the worksheet in Appendix. Show them one already made. Students can start making their own with the help of the teachers with using the print out and cardboard.
Teaching and learning approaches
What approaches to teaching and learning will you employ that will facilitate the learning objectives?
● ● ● ●
Inquiry-based activity with a constructivist approach. Using discussion and exploration vs. constant writing. Encourage students to be part of the team and learn as a team. Use a positive attitude, fun and creativity as part of the teacher/student experience.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, (2014). Australian Curriculum: Science curriculum, Year 3 Content Description. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/science/curriculum/f10?y=3&s=SU&s=HE&s=IS&layout=1 Bamber, G. 2001. History of the calendar. History World Retrieved from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?hist oryid=ac06 Calendars through the Ages, 2008. Our Year, Retrieved from http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/year.html Museum Victoria. 2015. Celestial Navigation Student activities p. 32. Retrieved from http://museumvictoria.com.au/pages/7587/celestial-navigationactivities-7-12.pdf Smith, M. (unknown year). Time from the southern cross. Retrieved from http://users.hunterlink.net.au/~madms/cruxstuff.html The Calendar FAQ. 2011. What Astronomical events form the basis of calendars? Retrieved from http://www.tondering.dk/claus/cal/astronomy.php
Assessment of student learning
The use of questioning throughout the lesson and set discussion times will be the key to gaining students conceptional changes. The ideas student’s draw/create at the beginning of the lesson compared to the end, where they get a chance to change their work. This for then can be included in students science portfolio, where students are able to write up a before and after idea’s plan they have learnt from the experiment.
Lesson Evaluation –Group Discussion Post Teaching Lesson Self-Evaluation Guidelines:
Alignment of objectives, teaching, assessment
Students were able to understand the connection between calendars and astronomical events
Achievement of objectives
Need to emphasise the objectives to students prior to lesson
Students responded well, I explained all new words taught and got students to repeat.
Structure of lesson
Structure worked well with whole group, small group, back to whole group.
Too much content planned to teach. Students had many questions.
Pace of activities
As above, students had many questions related to earth and space. (Would have been better to leave question time at the end)
Appropriateness of activities
Students enjoyed the activity and were able to explain what they learnt during discussion.
Was confident with explanations, and was able to answer all questions related to space/earth (Teacher was amazed with my personal content knowledge)
Students were able to relate to my questioning with looking at time and calendars.
Content detail and accuracy
Was able to answer all students’ questions relating to the content, even the obscure ones about space. Some content was a bit difficult for age appropriate.
Responsiveness to questions, queries from students. Dealing with the unpredictable…
S = Satisfactory
N/I = Needs Improvement
Was really happy with the outcome, the first lesson the students responded really well to questions. The second lesson students took a bit of time to be engaged with questions/information.
N/A = Not Applicable
Overall Reflective comments of your peer teach
Interestingly, the teaching practice in the classroom was more effective than the main activity set outside. By using questioning more in the classroom, students engaged more with the subject and were really keen to answer in front of the whole class. During the outside activity students were easily distracted with the surroundings. Students had many questions to ask that took the topic off track. Many of the questions asked though were all earth/space science related, and many were really scientific based content as example – What is the rings of Saturn made from? Need improving on timing, and understanding that questions related to the topic arise can take a big chunk of the planned time. Main activity needs refining to keep student engagement.
Teacher’s Aid/Science Content Knowledge
-Calendar The calendar is based on three key astronomical events: ● A day, which is the time from one sunrise to the next sunrise — one complete rotation of the Earth. ● A year, which is approximately 365.24 days — one complete orbit of Earth around the Sun. ● A month, which is approximately 29.53 days — one complete orbit of the Moon around the Earth. Since these time spans are not easily divided, calendars have always been imperfect. Some were rooted in tradition, while others evolved as humankind gained a greater understanding of science and astronomy. Some calendars, like the Christian calendar (which is the primary calendar in use today) focused on the Earth’s orbit. Others, like the Islamic calendar, focused on the Moon’s orbit. Still others, like the Jewish calendar and Chinese calendar, combine both. Most calendars are based on astronomical events. From our perspective on Earth, the two most important astronomical objects are the Sun and the Moon, which is why their cycles are very important in the construction and understanding of calendars. The Concept of Year Our concept of a year is based on the earth’s full rotation around the sun. The time is takes for the earth to circle the sun is called a tropical year and this is not an exact whole number of days. The actual length of a particular year varies by several minutes due to the influence of the gravitational force from other planets. Presently a tropical year is 365.242190 days but in 1900 it was slightly longer and in the year 2100 it will be shorter at 365.242184 days. This variance is also why once every four years a day is added to the calendar year to account for the variance of 0.24 days each tropical year. This is what we refer to as a leap year. In contrast to a tropical year, a calendar year is represented in whole numbers (ie 365 days per year, no fractions). The Concept of Month Our concept of a month is based on the moon’s motion around the earth. We note that calendar making by the moon’s movement is no longer commonly used, but think it useful to consider this journey known as the synodic month. A synodic month is time from one new moon to the next and is currently 29.5305889 days in length, but like the tropical year, this time varies. Around 1900 its length was 29.5305886 days, and around 2100 it will be 29.5305891 days. Note that these numbers are averages. The time between two new moons may vary by several hours due to a number of factors, including changes in the gravitational force from the sun, and the moon’s orbital inclination. It is unfortunate that the length of the tropical year is not a multiple of the length of the synodic month. This means that with 12 months per year, the relationship between our month and the moon cannot be maintained.
However, 19 tropical years is 234.997 synodic months, which is very close to an integer. So every 19 years the phases of the moon fall on the same dates (if it were not for the skewness introduced by leap years). Nineteen years is called a Metonic cycle (after Meton, an astronomer from Athens in the 5th century B.C.E.). So, to summarize: There are three important numbers to note: A tropical year is 365.24219 days. A synodic month is 29.53059 days. 19 tropical years are close to an integral number of synodic months.
Telling the time by the stars Because the Southern Cross rotates around the south celestial pole like a clock, it is possible to determine the time of night from its' position. The Southern Cross is so much a part of Australia it is a good idea to learn how to recognise it. Acrux (A-kruks) is the brightest star in the cross as well as being the star at the foot of the cross. The star at the top of the Cross-is called Gacrux (ga-kruks). The Southern Cross is not always upright as you see it on the Australian Flag. It rotates around the South Celestial Pole, and, in 24 hours will lie on one side, be upside down and lie on the other side before returning to an upright position. The South Celestial Pole is a point in the sky around which all our stars rotate. There is no star there, just black night sky. You can point to the centre of this great celestial clock by facing true south and pointing up at an angle equal to your latitude. To face true south set 168° on your compass. Sydney, Australia is on latitude of about 33°. If you raise your arm to 33° above the horizon you will be pointing to the South Celestial Pole. See now how a line through the Southern Cross also passes through the South Celestial Pole. So regular is this rotation around the Pole that the Southern Cross can be used to tell the time.
The position of the Southern Cross in the southern sky at 8 pm standard time during each month of the year. As on the diagram the Southern Cross is circumpolar, that is it
References - Lesson plan Allen, M. (2014). Misconceptions in Primary Science. (2nd edition). McGraw-Hill education. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, (2014). Australian Curriculum: Science curriculum, Year 3 Content Description. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/science/curriculum/f10?y=3&s=SU&s=HE&s=IS&layout=1 Bamber, G. 2001. History of the calendar. History World Retrieved from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac06 Calendars through the Ages, 2008. Our Year, Retrieved from http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/year.html Lucas, Keith B. & Cohen, Michael, R. (1999) The Changing Seasons: Teaching for Understanding. Australian Science Teachers Journal. v45 n4 p9-17.
Mitchell, I. (2003). Children’s alternative conceptions in science. EDF3214 Moodle, Week 5, 2015: Monash University. Museum Victoria. 2015. Celestial Navigation Student activities p. 32. Retrieved from http://museumvictoria.com.au/pages/7587/celestial-navigation-activities-7-12.pdf Smith, M. (unknown year). Time from the Southern Cross. Retrieved from http://users.hunterlink.net.au/~madms/cruxstuff.html The Calendar FAQ. 2011. What Astronomical events form the basis of calendars? Retrieved from http://www.tondering.dk/claus/cal/astronomy.php