May 19, 2016 - A few minutes later, Fred Hampton and another. Black Panther, Mark Clark, were dead, and four more Panthers were taken to the hospital with ...
will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be ..... tle yet profound ways. This dialectic struck ...
make a dollar or two here and there, me and a couple of brothers I used to run .... thing here three years and four months and I'm getting fucked over again. .... shoes." Huey knew his brothers very well. When the dude slid back to the ..... He was a
the Marxist-Leninist analysis by our Minister of Defense,. Huey P . Newton. ... from Right Revisionism to Left Dogmatism,foistoff their reactionary and blind.
Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association ... of 1850 and the Supreme Court's 1857 Dred Scott decision reignited the move- ment. ...... chief, was an FBI informant who had supplied the police with an apartment.
Jun 1, 2017 - New York Public Library digital exhibit essay by Komozi Woodard provides an accessible .... solidarity trips to. Cuba, North Korea, China and Mexico. ..... from BPP members, it includes police mug shots, photos of BPP offices ...
not here revolution cannot be achieved, for the people and only the people ... integrated these rules with a theory developed by Immanuel Kant called rationale.
Feb 13, 1971 - second, this one on the NoI, and distributed to more than a hundred .... zal, supervisor of the FBI's âRacial Matters Squadâ in that city, called a ...
Feb 13, 1971 - The FBI is and has always been a frankly anti-democratic institution, as ..... Viewed against this backdrop, it has become a commonplace that, however ... tive of the COINTELPRO was, as Internal Security Branch chief Alan Belmont put i
party members began their historic patrols of the Oakland Police Department armed with law books to ... are not answers or solutions, but they will help us to organize .... Music-Creativity, commitment, and motivation have been the key elements .....
THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY Fashioning Revolution Milan Harper Art 3410 Professor Lung May 17, 2017
Towards the end of the civil rights movement black Americans are left feeling frustrated leaders like Martin Luther King JR, Malcolm X and Bobby Kennedy are assassinated, police brutality and violence in black communities are on the raise. Though African Americans now have the right to vote they find themselves still facing discrimination, especially in the judicial system. Black American’s are being imprisoned at an alarming rate, poverty and unemployment are evident in black communities. In a state of despair a younger generation of activist rise up and put non-violent tactics to side. Following the words of Malcolm X they are fighting for the freedom of the black American through self- defense “ by any means necessary” and demanded the government be Revolutionized. A year after the death of Malcolm X, The Black Panther Party is formed in Oakland by Huey P Newton and Bobby Seale, the party believed heavily in self-defense. Realizing “the non-violent campaign of Martin Luther King had failed” The Panthers set out to educate Black people on their rights and give them the tools to fight against police brutality and systemic racism. Huey and Bobby “preached of Revolutionary War” and freedom of all oppressed people. They became their own form of military refusing to fight in the war in Vietnam they focused their efforts on the Revolutionary War” in America. The Black Panther Party took on a Military image it was apparent they were solider like uniform; Black leather jackets, berets, and guns draped over their backs. Their image was very important to their cause, as “ Huey emphasized the importance of image and visibility.” The most significantly political part of the Black Panther uniform was the black beret. The word beret is a French term referring to a flat woolen cap, and originally worn
by peasants. In 1889 men of the French Chasseurs Alpins wore blue berets; which became a symbol of mountain welfare. The Beret has since been used as a political, revolutionary and fashion statement. In Spain during the second Carlist War; Tomas Zumalacarregui “leader of the Carlists appeared wearing a red beret. The beret was then used in Militaries across the globe, the USA adopted the beret in a green color and earned the name “the green berets”. Berets were most likely used in the military because they were very cheap to mass-produce.
During the 60’s, revolutionaries across the globe adopted the beret, most famous Fidel Castro who wore a black beret during the Batista government of Cuba. Che Guevara; was a Argentine Marxist and a big figure of the Cuban revolution. Photographer Alberto Korda took what is considered one of the “worlds most famous C HE G UEVARA BY A LBERTO K ORDA
photographs” of Che Guevara at a memorial service wearing his infamous black beret. Che wanted to overturn
the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by United States. The Black Panthers took a cue from South American revolutionaries and assumed the black beret. Beyond just their revolutionary uniform revolutionaries in South America and the Black Panther also shared the political ideology of Marxism. As political as the black beret; Panther party members male and female wore their hair natural in Afros. Prior to the 60’s African American’s were mimicking hairstyles worn by white society. Trying to keep up with Eurocentric beauty standards black women
would straighten their hair with chemicals or a hotcomb. The hot comb was invented by Madame C.J Walker in the late 1890s, it success was due to need to assimilate to white culture and beauty. "Hair straighteners suggest to blacks that only through changing physical features will persons of African descent be afforded class mobility within African American communities and social acceptance by the dominant culture". It wasn’t’ just black women vying for upward mobility by straightening their hair, men also went to barbershops and had their hair
African American women with straight hair
chemical pressed or cut short. In the 50’s during the Civil rights movement appearance was a key tactic in fighting for
equality. The idea was to win over the middle white class by dressing and looking like them, “mitigating any sense of otherness based on appearance”. This tactic of assimilation was very controversial especially during the raise of black nationalism, many activist faulted Dr King for wanting to be too much like “the white man”. As the Civil rights movement gives way to the Black power movement respectability politics die out as the new generation challenges mainstream values. America’s failure to accept differences of their people is put on display with the emergence of the black power movement lead by far less accommodating youth with their fist and afros held high, affirming “Black Power!”. Stockley Carmichael speech during the March Against Fear was the first popular use of the term “Black Power”. During the Black power movement, Black Americans began to seek out a sense of identity. Embracing their natural hair texture was the first step in embracing their African roots and rebelling against the norm. Just as the hot comb
became a success, Afro Sheen became a huge product in the black hair care market. Afro Sheen’s creator George E Johnson, became the first African American owned company to be listed on the American Stock Exchange. With the Afro becoming a popular hairstyle, afro sheen’s products continued to grown so did their advertising; known for their commercials that promoted “ the natural look” these commercials instilled black pride and power in its viewers by depicting black people natural and full of pride.
“The natural” was of political importance for the Black Panther Party, founder’s Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale “proclaimed the afro would replace the suppressive crop”. The Black Panthers affirmed black beauty as they “embraced and celebrated non-Eurocentric beauty standards” the afro became a trademark of the Black Panther party founders Huey P Newton and Bobby Seale
revolution. The hairstyle became so closely associated with The Black Panther Party that
many afro wearing African Americans were targeted by the police and FBI. Angela Davis; a huge figure in the fight for black liberation was pictured on an issue of Time Magazine, her iconic Afro and the header “ The Making of a fugitive” typed across the front page of the magazine. Angela Davis believed FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover conspired to put together the image of Time Magazine’s cover story of her. At this point the FBI
had made Angela apart of their ten must wanted fugitives list, posters of Angela and her Afro with the words “Wanted” circulated. Using these pictures of Angela was very strategic, especially in drawing a clear line between afro and fugitive. Angela stated in one of her books that her “unruly natural hairdo symbolized black militancy”. Black militancy and liberation were considered America’s number one threat to J. Edgar Hoover’s; head of the FBI. Hoover declared The Panther party enemy number one in a time were America was at war with Vietnam . Hoover put together COINTELPRO, “ a series of covert and often illegal projects conducted by the FBI.” COINTELPRO “targeted groups deemed subversive” “including anti-Vietnam war organizations, feminist, and the black power movement”. With targets on their backs, many Black activist had to hide their identities and that meant ditching their afro’s for wigs. Angela Davis recalls going underground and disguising herself with makeup and long straight wigs. Typically seen bare-faced and afro “ glamor was the only look that might annul the likelihood of being perceived as a Revolutionary”. The act of wearing your natural hair out was one of pride and soon became a revolutionary act that prompted harassment and oppression. Pictures of wanted activist with afros were powerful structuring the image of a fugitive, Angela Davis recounts hearing stories of black women who were “accosted, harassed, and arrested by police, FBI, and immigration agents” just for wearing their hair natural. The Black Panthers taught their early recruits how important the afro was in claiming their identity
as Black men and women, they also believed they had to protect and fight for their sense of identity by any means necessary. Originally named The Black Panther Party for Self Defense, famous for taking up arms to fight against police brutality the panthers were not strangers to the second amendment. They exploited the “right to bear arms” to their benefit by patrolling their neighborhoods with rifles on their backs also know as “Copwatching”. Inspired by the words of Malcolm X “ the time has come to fight back in self defense whenever and wherever the black man is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked”. Members of the party would come down to scenes were cops were arresting black citizens with their rifles to make sure their rights weren’t being violated. Guns became the center of the Panther’s identity, as they believed “the gun is the only thing that will free us-gain us our liberation”. Maintaining the safety of their communities was a top priority for the Panthers, after a number of “traffic fatalities and injuries to school children” outside a predominantly black elementary school due to a lack of traffic lights the Panthers took matters into their own hands. Initially going to the Oakland city council and asking for traffic lights in front of the school for the safety of the kids crossing the busy intersection, they were told it would take over a year to have traffic lights installed. Armed Black Panthers then blocked traffic and escorted school kids safety across the street before and after school until the city council agreed to install the traffic light sooner. The Californian government wasn’t too happy to hear that a group of black militants were walking around with rifles strapped to their backs and intimidating police officers. In response the Mulford Act was drafted in 1967, the Mulford Act was a
California bill that repealed the law allowing public carrying of loaded firearms. News of the bill being bought to the Capitol enticed 30 Panther members to walk into the state building with their guns as protest. While most of the party was inside the Capitol building co-founder Bobby Seale was outside talking to the press his statements shed light on the increasing fear of the police in black communities and lack of government involvement in their communities, “Black people have begged, prayed, petitioned, demonstrated to get the racist power structure of America to right its wrongs”. The disappointment felt by the black community after the civil rights movement weighed heavy on the party. The act of taking up arms was to protect themselves and their community from police brutality and violence. Black communities were not safe and police presence did more to terrorize than to deescalate the ongoing crime in inner cities, Seale goes on to say “ police agencies of American escalate the oppression of black people throughout the ghettoes of America.” After Seale’s speech at the capitol those who had been protesting inside were arrested on felony charges of “conspiracy to disrupt a legislative session”. The Mulford bill was passed and signed by governor Ronald Reagan, Regan who would go on to run for President as “a steadfast defender of the
Second amendment”. Regan was quoted saying “You won’t get gun control by disarming the law abiding citizen… One way to get real gun control: disarm the thugs and the criminals, lock them up”. The attempt to shut down the tactics of the Black Panther Party wasn’t as successful as the government had hoped. After Bobby Seale’s speech images of the Panthers protest in the Capitol were on the front page of every major newspaper. The powerful image of the Party and Bobby’s words compelled many across the US to join the party. Panther chapters began to pop up all over the US and the Party was starting to grow quickly.
The party had four major concerns within their community: Education, housing, employment and Civil rights. To improve on theses four concerns they drafted a ten point program of “What We Want Now!” detailed as follows. 1. We Want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of Black Community 2. We want full employment for our people 3. We want an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our Black Community
4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings 5. We want education for our people the exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us true history and our role in the present day society. 6. We want all black men exempt from military service 7. We want an immediate end to POLICE BRUTALITY and MURDER of black people 8. We want freedom for all Black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails 9. We want all black people when brought to trail to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their Black Communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States 10. We want land, bread, housing ,education, clothing and justice and peace With their ten-point plan as an outline the Panthers began to build up their communities. Though mostly known for their image as gun toting revolutionaries who stirred up trouble for local police, the panthers were very much involved in servicing their communities. The panthers started a free breakfast program, feeding hungry school kids every morning before school, they focused on huger and poverty through this program. Members went door to door letting parents know where their children can go for
breakfast, usually held in community churches the panthers cooked, and served over a hundred kids a day in the city of Oakland. During the height of the party the Los Angeles Chapter fed of 1,200 children a week and 300 children a week in their New Orleans chapter. The breakfast program came out of the need for improvement of education, the members believed black children would “grow and intellectually develop because children cant learn on empty stomachs”. The Free Breakfast for Children became such a success that it was mandatory for every chapter to adopt the program. The Free Breakfast program was one of many programs developed by the Panthers, co founder Huey Newton stated “these programs satisfied the deep needs of the community”. Besides hungry children and poor performance amongst the youth in school many black communities found themselves needing medical assistance but faced medical discrimination. African- Americans were not able to access affordable health care and some times “subject to overt mistreatment: forced sterilization, being used as human test subjects or having their cells removed for experimentation or sale”. Quality health care was not found in many black communities many had to travel far distances for treatment. Seeing the black community suffer with dieses such as hypertension, sickle cell, ulcers and tuberculosis without treatment the panther opened free clinics and their respected cities. Providing first-aid and basic services the panthers bought in volunteer doctors and nurses to test for “high blood pressure, lead poising, tuberculosis and diabetes”. These Panther clinics also provide physical exams, treatments for cold and flu and
cancer detection screenings. Allowing those in communities with little to no health care the panthers gained attention of the government especially in their initiative to find a cure for sickle cell, a dieses that plagued mostly people of color had gone ignored by the government for years until the panthers offered screenings and focused on finding a cure. It was then that the government allocated funding for the treatment and cure of sickle cell. Previous to the Panther clinics medical care had been a huge civil rights issue in communities of people of color stating “ of all inequality, injustice in healthcare is the most shocking and inhumane”. It is no doubt the Panther’s programs helped serve and build trust amongst the party and their communities. The support the Panthers received due to their programs and work in the communities alarmed J. Edgar Hoover, it was clear in a memo he sent to all FBI offices that said the party’s programs “ promoted at least tacit support for the Black Panther Party among naïve individuals and what is more distressing, it provides the BPP with a ready audiences composed of highly impressionable youth.” He then suggest the Free Breakfast program was the most influential and best activity going for the Black Panther party and “ as such, is potentially the great threat to efforts to neutralize the BPP and destroy what it stands for”.
Along with Community programs the Panthers also had a newspaper that was published weekly. The Party survived off of the sales of the Panther Newspaper, it also helped spread their message across the country. Emory Douglas was the Minister of Culture for the Black Panther Party, his artwork for the newspaper became a huge hit and was featured in almost every publication of the Panther Paper. Emory’s work represented the struggle of black people and also their willingness to fight. Emory portrayed “the poor with genuine empathy, not as victims but as outraged, unapologetic and ready for a fight”. Emory stated people responded to his artwork because it was a reflection of them, he often portrayed black Americans as the heroes in
his work. Many of his characters are pictures with teardrops, which represents the pain black Americans go through. Emory is well known for depicting police officers as pigs, it was Huey Newton’s idea to have a pig head on a police officer, Emory took this image and made it an iconic part of the Panther Paper. Art became a huge part of the party due to the popularity of the Paper and Emory’s artwork. The Panthers protest banners and signs were just as graphic as the Paper’s artwork.
During the active years of the Panther Party many of its leaders were imprisoned or killed. In response to the many wrongful convictions and murders members of the Black Panthers and supporters took to the streets to protest. During a raid in New York 21 Panther members “were arrested and charged with conspiracy to blow up The New York Botanical Garden, department stores ect.” These charges were false and came out through informants the FBI had placed within the Panther Party. Face 156 counts of “conspiracy” the 21 panther members became known as “The Panther 21”. Protest took place in New York with banners and signs demanding the freedom of “Panther 21” whose bail had been set at 100,000 for each member. The trial lasted 8 months; the longest and most expensive in New York’s
history, it took the jury forty-five minutes to find The panther 21 not guilty. The Panther 21 had became a evidence of wrongful indictments brought among Black Panthers and the people coming together to protest and demand justice. Just as “ The Panther 21” became a rallying cry for the Panthers and their supporters “Free Huey” was chanted and spray painted on walls through out the US.
Before The Panther 21, Huey Newton was charged with the killing of police officers John Frey and sent to prison for 2 to 32 years. Inside of prison Huey became a political and national icon, in his words “ everyday they kept me there I grew as a symbol of the brutalization of the poor and black as well as a living reproach to society’s indifference to inequities of the legal system.” Huey’s imprisonment lead to a rally being held in front of the Alameda court house, attendees held up signs of Huey and banners with “Free Huey” painted across them. These banners became an iconic part of the Party’s protest for the freedom of political prisoners.
The Black Panther Party was one of the most influential revolutionary
Eldridge Cleaver Minster of Communication
groups of the Civil Rights era. Their image and defense strategies attracted media attention and admirers. The Party and its supporters grow rapidly for the first time black American’s were fighting back through community building and education of the law. The Panther’s knew the power of knowing your rights, they made themselves well versed in the American constitution and judicial system ultimately using it as a tool for freedom. Unfortunately the Panthers came to a devastating end, the party had internal turmoil brewing from the freedom of Huey Newton. Once Huey was free he wanted to put focus on the communal programs like Free Breakfast and health clincs in black and brown communities. Eldridge Cleaver Minister of communication wanted to take a more aggressive approach and continue to fight back against racial injustice by challenging police officers. The party broke into 2 factions Huey supporters and Eldridge supporters. The most devastating blow to the Panthers came by the interference by the FBI to infiltrate and break up the Panthers by causing internal conflict. “These agents fabricated information when arresting members and when trials were held” the bureau used “fraud and force to sabotage constitutionallyprotected political activity.” The COINTELPRO operation ran by the FBI destroyed the Panthers “a string of arrest murders and forced exiles.” The Party dissolved in 1982, considering themselves “The Vanguards of the revolution” it is no doubt they used new ideas and tools to achieve black liberation. 50 years later the Image of the Panthers is a powerful one, young black men and women armed with rifles wearing black berets and leather jackets insights ideas on revolution. Their programs inspired our government to take action as the adopted the Free Breakfast program in schools
across America. It is no doubt the Panthers changed the face of the Civil Rights Movement and turned it into a Revolution.
Works cited Tanner, George. "Black Panthers' Fight For Free Health Care Documented in New Book."Truthout. Truthout, 26 Oct. 2013. Web. 01 May 2017. Morabia, Alfredo. "Unveiling the Black Panther Party Legacy to Public Health." American Journal of Public Health, 106.10 (2016): 1732-1733. Garcha, Kiran Amber. "Bring the Vanguard Home: Revisiting the Black Panther Party's Sites of Class Struggle." Journal of Pan African Studies, 9.4 (2016): 1-15. "Black Panther Party." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 May 2017. Web. 17 May 2017. Russell, Yvonna. "The Mulford Act." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 22 Jan. 2014. Web. 17 May 2017. Steven. "The Black Panther Party for Self Defense." Libcom.org. N.p., 17 Sept. 2006. Web. 17 May 2017. "The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense." Socialist Alternative. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2017. Angola 3 News / AlterNet. "The Side of the Black Panthers That's Been Virtually Ignored: Their Fight for Healthcare Justice." Alternet. N.p., 21 Dec. 2011. Web. 17 May 2017. Fulton, April. "The Black Panthers: Revolutionaries, Free Breakfast Pioneers." The Plate. The Plate, 04 Nov. 2015. Web. 17 May 2017. The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution. Dir. Stanley Nelson. Perf. Angela Arnold and Erica Ball. TheBlack Panthers Vanguard of the Relution. N.p., n.d. Web. Bassett, Mary T. "Beyond Berets: The Black Panthers as Health Activists." American Journal of Public Health, 106.10 (2016): 1741-1743. Gatchet, Amanda Davis, and Dana L Cloud. "David, Goliath, and the Black Panthers: The Paradox of the Oppressed Militant in the Rhetoric of Self-Defense." Journal of Communication Inquiry, 37.1 (2013): 5-25. Bennett, Hans. "The Black Panthers and the Assassination of Fred Hampton." Journal of Pan African Studies, 3.6 (2010): 215-221. Poster, Guest. "The Black Panther Party and the Free Breakfast for Children Program."AAIHS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2017.
"The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 (2011)." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 17 May 2017. Joseph, Peniel. "Black Humanity and Black Power." Boston Review, (2017): 90.