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The Mysteries of the Dark Moon in Woman’s Life by Hagur, Grand Hierophant of the Sinister Pathway Triangle Order
Foreword from the Author The mysteries of the Dark Moon seek to uncover the secret of the moon’s mysterious dark phase through exploring the mythical, psychological, and metaphysical symbolism in the lunar darkness. The sun and moon, referred to as “the luminaries,” are the most prominent astronomical bodies in the sky. Together they embody the principle of polarity both in our physical world and in our psychological nature. According to the beliefs of early peoples, the moon was the force that fertilized and quickened all new life. The greatest mystery of all, that of death “Thanatos” and regeneration, was contained in the moon’s most secret aspect, the dark phase. Enough has been said at the moment to open this new album. The Dark Moon Phase in Woman’s Live. It is linked to woman’s menstrual periods. If women are attuned to their own body rhythm, when they bleed all they really want to do is to retreat in their bedroom. Also, women feel forced to carry on as usual. However, the ancient Goddess-worshipping cultures understood that the menstrual time is the woman’s most powerful time of the month, a time when her psychic and spiritual energies are most highly sensitized. The Abrahamic faiths considered the period as impure and women were/are barred from religious ceremonies. Though the menstruation period is connected with powerful psychic energies to effect healing and insight in their lives on a monthly basis. Knowledge of birthing, like that of dying, has been taken away from modern people. Because the sexuality of menstruation does not lead to conception in a physical sense, it “is the gateway to magic and extrasensory perception. The Cabbala states that Lilith is the ladder on which one can ascend to the rungs of prophecy. The patriarchy rejected Lilith’s menstrual sexuality because it did not result in the birth of children. They feared the psychic power of a woman’s red time. In defaming Lilith, menstruation was simultaneously tabooed to prevent women from discovering the power of their wise blood. 2
The Dark Moon Mysteries by Hagur, Grand Hierophant
Foreword The Dark Goddess, the Dark Moon, is fierce, hot, and powerful in her sexuality. She lives in the wilderness of our psyche apart from religious outworn civilisation. She represents that aspect of us who would flee to hidden secret places in the forest where we would let down our clothes and dance naked with wild abandon. Her unrestrained sexuality if free, belonging only to herself, and she strains against the knots of monogamous expectations, serving only to please her lovers. Her sexuality is not submissive, passive, or procreative. The Dark Goddess pushes us all to reach our own peaks of erotic sensation, and in our ecstasy, our sexual energy is regenerative. Indeed, she moves our lives, as the force within us. She inspires women with power that arises from deep within their wombs, with a call to speak the truth, upholding the integrity, protest injustice, but exalting at all times the ecstatic healing sexuality. She urges us all to expose evil, shatter falsity and hypocrisy, and demand the truth from others whenever is encounter religious outworn domination and therefore oppression. The mysteries of the Dark Moon seek to uncover the secret of the moon’s mysterious dark phase through exploring the mythical, psychological, and metaphysical symbolism in the lunar darkness. The sun and moon, referred to as “the luminaries,” are the most prominent astronomical bodies in the sky. Together they embody the principle of polarity both in our physical world and in our psychological nature. According to the beliefs of early peoples, the moon was the force that fertilized and quickened all new life. The greatest mystery of all, that of death “Athanatos” and regeneration, was contained in the moon’s most secret aspect, the dark phase. Enough has been said at the moment to open this new album. The purpose of the dark phase of any cycle of the moon is that of transition between the death of the old and the birth of the new. The dark time, the Abyssal time, is the one of retreat, of restoration or healing, and of dreaming the future. The darkness is lit with the translucent quality of transformation, and during this essential and necessary period, life is prepared to be born or reborn. In fact, without the time to withdraw, rest, and recuperate from the heavy demands of the outer activities of conscious waking life, our bodies and minds cannot sustain their supply of vital or psychic energy. If we correctly understand the dark, not the religious way, wa can use the cover of darkness to learn the magick 3
of our own particular secret rites, which can lead to a revitalised and replenished life. The Dark Moon Phase in Woman’s Live. It is linked to woman’s menstrual periods. If women are attuned to their own body rhythm, when they bleed all they really want to do is to retreat in their bedroom. Also, women feel forced to carry on as usual. However, the ancient Goddess-worshipping cultures understood that the menstrual time is the woman’s most powerful time of the month, a time when her psychic and spiritual energies are most highly sensitized. The Abrahamic faiths considered the period as impure and women were/are barred from religious ceremonies. Though the menstruation period is connected with powerful psychic energies to effect healing and insight in their lives on a monthly basis. Knowledge of birthing, like that of dying, has been taken away from modern people. Because the sexuality of menstruation does not lead to conception in a physical sense, it “is the gateway to magic and extrasensory perception. The Cabbala states that Lilith is the ladder on which one can ascend to the rungs of prophecy. The patriarchy rejected Lilith’s menstrual sexuality because it did not result in the birth of children. They feared the psychic power of a woman’s red time. In defaming Lilith, menstruation was simultaneously tabooed to prevent women from discovering the power of their wise blood. About the moon with its eight lunation phases, from any location on the Earth, the Moon appears to be a circular disk which, at any specific time, is illuminated to some degree by direct sunlight. Like the Earth, the Moon is a sphere which is always half illuminated by the Sun, but as the Moon orbits the Earth we get to see more or less of the illuminated half. During each lunar orbit (a lunar month), we see the Moon's appearance change from not visibly illuminated through partially illuminated to fully illuminated, then back through partially illuminated to not illuminated again. Although this cycle is a continuous process, there are eight distinct, traditionally recognized stages, called phases. The phases designate both the degree to which the Moon is illuminated and the geometric appearance of the illuminated part. These phases of the Moon, in the sequence of their occurrence (starting from New Moon), are listed in this study.
Mythology Before we begin our mythological exploration of some dark goddesses, let us briefly consider our beliefs concerning the word “myth” as understood in Wiccan, Satanism, and in the world philosophies. Among the many theories of myth and many theories of ritual, the myth and ritual theory is distinctive in connecting myths and rituals. The myth and ritual, or myth-ritualist, theory 4
maintains that myths and rituals operate together. The theory claims not that myths and rituals happen to go hand in hand but that they must. In its most uncompromising form, the theory contends that myths and rituals cannot exist without each other. In a milder form, the theory asserts that myths and rituals originally exist together but may consequently go their separate ways. In the mildest form, the theory maintains that myths and rituals can arise separately but consequently coalesce. In our society the word myth has come to mean something that is not quite true. However, to the ancients, the myths were the repositories of their traditions and wisdom. On an outer level the myths were the oral legends that conveyed the stories of their creation and the history of humanity. This oral tradition, preserved by the bards and storytellers, was the primary means of communication in a time before reading, writing, and books were accessible to most people. On an inner level the myths depicted the psychology of the human condition. The stories of the gods and goddesses represented the basic archetypal scripts and characters that were available to individuals, and through which they could live out the meaning of their lives. Also, embracing the atheist viewpoint towards ancient stories as found in all religions, the basic definition of Mythology is, “a collection of myths about the origin and history of a people and their deities, ancestors, and heroes.” A myth, meanwhile, is “a traditional story originating in a preliterate society, dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serve as primordial types in a primitive view of the world.” A myth can also be any real or fictional story, recurring theme, of character type that appeals to the consciousness of a people by embodying its cultural ideals or by giving expression to deep, commonly felt emotions.” Other definitions emphasize the fictional, half-truth, imaginary, or unreal aspect, despite the fact that the word derives from the Greek version of tale. There is a tendency of any age to assume that those who have gone before are necessarily dumber than the current crop. This extends to children and their opinions of their elders (although some are amazed at how much their parents have learned in the few short years of the children going from their teens to their twenties). Whole societies think of the previous generation has not knowing nearly as much as they do. But if one follows this logic to its inevitable conclusion, then two hundred generations ago (roughly 4,000 years), the people must have been so backward, so primitive, so stupid, that it is a phenomena that they survived long enough to parent the subsequent generation.
Contrary to this view is the idea that perhaps, just perhaps, the folk of yesteryear were not raving morons, wandering about, stumbling over rocks and running into trees. This idea, however radical, might suggest that there were things they knew of which modern man does not have a clue. Because of this, perhaps there stories had a strong factual basis. It is clear that our wondrous modern technology would very likely be unable to duplicate the Great Pyramids of Giza. This is both a technical problem, as well as a motivational, political one. There are also problems of how the ancients knew how to build Stonehenge in terms of both moving and erecting the stone work, and in designing the circles in such a way as to demonstrate their knowledge (4000 years ago) of the sizes of the other planets. Given what modern man presumes is the technology of their time, it just doesn’t compute. Fictional tales are entertaining. Speculative, far from truthful stories -- not to mention lies and fabrications -- from The National Enquirer and the Congressional Record have their place in the greater scheme of things. But they are not to be believed. It is just that it is very easy to record such ramblings nowadays, and thus they live far beyond their value. Mythologies, on the other hand, may be, in truth, renditions of histories. And in the true tradition of histories, are the stories told by the victors. In other words, histories are true only occasionally, and for the most part are the “spin” placed upon the actual events by those who are advocating and promoting a particular point of view. Interestingly enough, ancient mythologies appear to contain more truth than the so-called histories of the same ages. The mythologies have the advantage, at least, of having been concocted at the time of the alleged event, while the histories were written long after. Accordingly, Mythologies may be construed to be true histories: 1. Whose renditions are more easily conveyed by word of mouth, 2. That current paradigms are uncomfortable with the implications if the stories are indeed true, 3. That current thinking would just as soon not think about, 4. That would greatly upset people with a false, traditional, concrete viewpoint, and 5. That would require people to rethink the reality of their world. Of the dark gods and goddesses, let us again but briefly consider our beliefs concerning the word “myth”. In our society the word myth has come to mean something that is not true. However to the ancients, the myths and from there 6
legends and religion were the repositories of their traditions and wisdom. On an outer level the myths were the oral legends that conveyed the stories of their creation and the history of humanity. This oral tradition, distorted with the ages and as such continued by the bards and storytellers, was the primary means of communication in a time before reading, writing, and books were accessible to most people. The obvious point is that if the ancient myths are true, if extraterrestrials created mankind by cross breeding with Homo erectus, if the Gods and Goddesses of old were, in reality, mortal, living beings, and more importantly, if these same bozos are still around wrecking havoc among our lives... That might be uncomfortable for some people. It is said that if one prays to the Gods and Goddesses, and they don’t exist, you haven’t lost much. But if one doesn’t pray, and they do exist, one may find themselves in deep, mythological do-do. This is especially true, when one contemplates the “Return of the Goddess” (and how she might be feeling about what’s being going on of late)! To understand this, is psychology, mainly as explained by the Psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, and his scholars. On an inner level myths depicted the psychology of the human condition. The stories of the gods and goddesses represented the basic archetypal scripts and characters that were available to individuals, and through which they could live out the meaning of their lives. These stories contained for them the divine inspiration that could aid people aid people in their search for self-knowledge, healing and growth. In the ancient healing temples of Asklepius, part of a person’s cure involved attending a dramatic performance in the Theater of Dionysus. The different plays, in which the gods and goddesses had major roles, addressed the psychological issues behind a person’s physical ailment. Carl Gustav Jung called “myths”, “the eternal patterns in our soul” (higher self of the mind), that continues to live on in our dreams, fantasies, symbols, and in the interactions of our daily life. In fact, psychologists are just beginning to discover that myth is the natural language of the collective unconscious. All mythical gods and goddesses humanity has created live within us accordingly, as the force of our personality, and their stories true or untrue, and as such shaping our lives. Our view of mythological deities has evolved over the millennia from personified gods and goddesses to properties of the psyche. The changing images in the transformations of myths over time parallel the emotional and mental development of the corresponding archetype in the psyche of humanity.
Archetypes According to Jungian Theory, archetypes are, “Collective universal patterns or motifs which come from the collective unconscious and are the basic content of religions, mythologies, legends, and fairytales.” They emerge in individuals through dreams, visions, and their effects appear in “Consciousness” as images and ideas. An archetype can be said to express the presence of a divine force within the human soul that manifests itself in all of the typically human patterns of thought, feeling, imagery, and behaviour. Human instincts are but one of its manifestations. According to Jean Shinoda Bolen [who wrote, Goddesses in Every Woman and Gods in Every Man -- but presumably not the obvious sequel, Demons in Every Child], the ancient Greeks used a deity to mirror every state and capacity, every mood, thought, act, and experience of the human being. Such an exercise can be psychologically helpful, even if the Gods and Goddesses so used turn out to be more than Mythology, and in fact, were living, mortal beings. In the latter case, it might be wiser to think of the immortal archetypes as mortal mentors, the latter deserving of a substantial amount of respect. Such respect can be demonstrated most effectively by fashioning one’s life after the characteristics of one’s selected deity(s). To aid the reader in this new quest, the following is a listing of the archetypes (mentors!) and their unique characteristics, as have come down to us from Greek Mythology. Also included, however, are two Sumerian mentors (archetypes?) which represent, perhaps, the more complete being -- the greater picture in effect before the loss of power and splitting off of the different aspects (the specializations) due to the actions of the patriarchy. Accordingly, choose both your archetype (what you’re probably currently acting out) and your mentor (what you might like to become).
Gods and Goddesses in Everyone Taken in part from Jean Shinoda Bolen, MD Gods in Everyman, A New Psychology of Men’s Lives and Loves; and, Goddesses in Everywoman, A New Psychology of Women. (HarperPerennial, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers (1990 and 1985)
Goddesses Aphrodite -- Aphrodite was one of the three virgin goddesses. [Only virgin meant, “beholden to no man”. Slightly different from the current mistranslation!] Aphrodite was the Goddess of Love -- the sexual, romantic, platonic, soul connection, deep friendship, rapport, and empathic understanding type, with a desire to know and be known. Her consciousness was focused, yet receptive, taking in what was attended to, what was affected by. Her style was to be genuinely, momentarily involved in whatever interested her. She attended to another person as if he or she were fascinating, beautiful and profound. She was always present in creative work (including solitary work), and facilitated change and growth. “Whenever Aphrodite consciousness was present, energy was generated: lovers glowed with well-being and heightened energy; conversation sparkled, stimulating thoughts and feelings.” Aphrodite as mentor was [and as archetype, is] possessed of the power to transform and was never victimized, valued emotional experience with others more than independence from others or permanent bonds, sought to consummate relationships and generate new life, was a vision carrier with the power of positive expectations on the behaviour of others, enjoyed love and beauty, sex and sensuality, was demanding, creative, fell in love often and easily, was loaded with sex appeal, and became a tremendous force for change (because of her passionate creativity), had intense relationships, enjoyed the moment, attractive with a natural unselfconscious sensuality, an innocent flirt, not focused on long-range academic goals or career, unemotional work of no interest, preferred variety and intensity, gravitated toward men who were not necessarily good for her or to her (but may have made major changes at mid-life: ready to settle down with a better choice of males), and had a tendency to act on desires without considering the consequences. Artemis -- another of the virgin goddesses. Artemis was independent, nonrelational, untouched by the heat of emotion or passion, not moved by love, 9
sexuality, or infatuation, one-in-herself, belonging to no man, with an active, focused consciousness, with little apparent need to become vulnerable (to give and receive love and comfort and support growth in others). Artemis’ adaptation mode had been to separate from men and their influence, and join other feminists. Artemis was [is] the personification of the independent feminine spirit, capable of feeling whole without a man, seeking her own goals on terrain of her own choosing, the ability to concentrate intensely on whatever was important to her and to be undistracted (either by the needs of others or by competition from others), competent, capable of achievement, concerned for victimized and powerless women and young (including her mother), safe childbirth goddess, sister, back-to-nature, capable of at-oneness with herself, “moonlight vision”, active rather than passive, felt strongly about her causes and principles, interests of no or limited commercial value, competitive, individualist, recreational sex advocate, where relationships were secondary, sexual intimacy as another dimension of friendship, “Wonder Woman”, a female bear (protecting girls on the threshold of being women), could be very vengeful, could be merciless, needed to develop compassion and empathy, and “the Far-Distant Artemis”. Mid-life made her more reflective (as the Goddess of the Moon, vice Goddess of the Hunt). While Artemis might rescue women and feminine values from the patriarchy, she could also require women to sacrifice and devalue what had traditionally been considered feminine (receptive, nurturing, related-to-others and willing to make sacrifices for the sake of others). “Outrage at wrongs done, loyalty to others, strength to express a point of view, and a propensity to take action can be very positive characteristics of Artemis." Athena -- Another of the virgin goddesses. Athena was like Artemis, but in Athena’s case, her adaptation mode was identification with men -- she became like one of them. She became, in fact, the “father’s daughter”, valuing rational thinking and standing for the domination of will and intellect over instinct and nature. She was protector, advisor, patron, and ally of heroic men, ruled by her head rather than her heart, kept her head in the heat of emotional situations, was invulnerable, avoided emotional or sexual entanglements with men (but with whom she worked closely as companion, colleague, or confidante), she thrived in the business/academic/ scientific/military/political areas, knew the “bottom line”, went for the practical and pragmatic, not swayed by “unprofitable” emotions or sentiment, understood the value of having a mentor, expected twoway loyalty, Goddess of health, planed ahead, analytical, uninterested in feelings and people, an affinity for computerise, thought linearly and clearly, attention to detail, organized (er), accepted reality and adapted, attracted to powerful men (“power is the best aphrodisiac”) and usually chose her man (and planed his 10
“capture”), deliberate rather than impulsive, lived in her head, lived for her work, and never a child (she was born an adult). Her Medussa qualities manifest in her “ability to intimidate others and to take away the spontaneity, vitality, and creativity of people who are not like her.” She enjoys the companionship of others, but lacks emotional intensity, erotic attraction, intimacy, passion, or ecstasy; thus spared the deep despair and suffering that may follow bonding with others or needing them. Hestia -- Another virgin goddess, like Artemis and Athena, but having an adaptation mode of withdrawing from men, becoming anonymous in appearance and alone. Hestia focused, instead, on the inner subjective experience, totally absorbed when she meditated, sought quiet tranquillity, solitude, found keeping house a meaningful activity (kairos time -- participating in time) or even a form of worship, above and out of intrigues and rivalries, avoided being caught up in the passions of the moment, never elated or devastated, wise, detached and connected, centred, quiet, unobtrusive, warm, peaceful, self-sufficient, the original “old soul”, lacked ambition and drive, did not value power or recognition, viewed sex as a nice, warm experience, non-orgasmic, “still waters run deep”, rejected the intellectual and emotional forces that might pull her away from her centre. Hera -- One of the vulnerable goddesses. She was [is] relationship-oriented (dependent upon a significant one), had a need for affiliation, tended to experience powerlessness and responded with rage and jealousy, accepting, diffuse awareness. Fundamentally incomplete without a marriage partner, Hera yearned to be a wife, stately, regal, a Nancy Reagan, beautiful, honoured and humiliated, with the capacity to bond, loyal, faithful, enduring, committed, predisposed to displace blame from her mate (on whom she was emotionally dependent) onto others, vindictive (a mental sleight of hand which made her feel powerful rather than rejected), derived emotional security from a high-status male, work was secondary, placed minimal importance on female friends (husband’s primary friend), preferred a man who was emotionally dependent upon her, saw sex as a duty, could oppress other women, could be very destructive, and judgmental of other women (and really hated Aphrodite types!). He style of “limiting herself to being a wife results in limiting her growth and ability to adapt, if death or divorce brings her wife role to an end.” She is only a half of a whole, fulfilling a culturally determined role. Demeter -- Another vulnerable goddess. Demeter was [is] also relationshiporiented (and like Hera, dependent upon a significant other). She had a need for affiliation, tended to experience powerlessness and responded with depression, accepting, diffuse awareness. She was the epitome of the maternal, an instinct 11
fulfilled through pregnancy or through providing physical, psychological, or spiritual nourishment to others, the provider (food and spiritual sustenance), nurturing, Mother Nature, generous, Lady Bountiful, dependent upon her maternal role (after which her life lost its meaning), solid, dependable, fertile, long-suffering, unconcerned with status, envious or jealous only with respect to children, mixed feelings about feminism and the women's movement, relied on women friends for emotional support (vice her husband), did not choose her mate, just as soon cuddled as made love, huggy, preferred breastfeeding to intercourse, and tried to be indispensable. Persephone -- Another vulnerable goddess, like Hera and Demeter. She adapted to the experience of powerlessness by responding with depression, acceptance, and only a diffuse awareness. She fulfilled the dual figure of the Maiden (Kore or young girl) and mature Queen who claimed for herself whatever she wanted. On the one hand, she was carefree, compliant, passive, acted upon by others rather than active herself, did not know “who she was” and unaware of her desires and strengths, malleable, innately receptive, adaptable (to meet a man’s wishes), and unaware of her sexual attractiveness, innocent, lacked passion, non-orgasmic, demure, youthful, vital, young in spirit, receptive to change, willowy, conformed to circumstances or stronger personalities, open, flexible, uncertain of getting married (“bartered bride”), introverted or dormant sexuality, and the most indistinct and unthreatening of all the goddesses. Sleeping Beauty or Snow White. Persephone avoided anger, but could become narcissistic, devious, dishonest, and manipulative. Her work was unimportant until she entered the underworld and became Queen -- whereupon she became possessive, creative, spiritual, psychic, artistic, unorthodox, deeply personal. Only when she lacked someone to do things for her or someone to blame could she grow.
Gods Ares:The rejected son. He was physical, manual rather than mental, and motivated by emotions -- did not use his mind or words. “Ares could be stirred to fight by rage or loyalty, using weapons for a destructive purpose.” Often ridiculed or called names by others, his self-esteem was affected. ARES was the great Olympian god of war, battle lust, civil order and manly courage. In Greek art he was depicted as either a mature, bearded warrior dressed in battle arms, or a nude beardless youth with helm and spear. Because of his lack of distinctive attributes he is often difficult to identify in classical art. He was the son of a devalued, angry, impotent mom. Ares is the image of masculinity, physical power, intensity, and immediate action; dancer and 12
warrior, lover, loyal, in touch with his feelings and his body (good for lovemaking), often uncontrolled and irrational, brawler, emotional, protective of his children, assertive, active, embodied, reacted before thinking, capable of licking his wounds and going on, success often depended on luck (which then became a surprise to everyone, including himself), here-and-now, most compatible lover for Aphrodite, exuberant lover, neither planed on marriage nor avoided it, generous father, impulsive, lost out to his siblings, discouraged, and repressed. As a developed lover, he was a man who loved to make love, a man who loved women’s bodies, a man who could spend hours making love, a man who preferred a grownup, sexually liberated woman who enjoyed sex as much as he. In the patriarchy, his fate was often sealed by mid-life. Some of the more famous myths featuring the god include: * His adulterous affair with Aphrodite in which the pair were trapped in a net laid by her husband Hephaistos; * The slaying of Adonis, his rival for the love of Aphrodite, in the guise of a boar; * The transformation of Kadmos of Thebes and his wife Harmonia into serpents; * The murder of Hallirhothios to avenge his daughter's rape and his subsequent trial in the court of the Areiopagos; * The arrest of Sisyphos, an impious man who kidnapped the god Death; * The battle of Herakles and Kyknos in which the god intervened in support of his son; * His support of the Amazones, warrior daughters of the god; * His capture by the Aloadai giants who imprisoned him in a bronze jar; * The Trojan War in which he was wounded by Diomedes in battle with the help of Athene. Apollo -- The favoured son. He was emotionally distant and mentally active, into words, negotiations, and commerce, well-travelled, but avoided physical conflict. Apollo never had a wife or consort. He was the patron of medicine, the instigator of Know Thyself, Nothing in Excess style thinking, favoured thinking over feeling, distance over closeness, objective assessment over subjective intuition, sought clear definitions, valued order and harmony, and preferred surface over underlying appearances, not a dreamer, wanted to go, accomplish and win, All-American, minimal humility, fair-haired son (but never 13
quite made it to the top), out of touch with feelings, preferred Bach, brother to his siblings, valued prudence, avoided physical danger, unrifled by emotions, and preferred being an observer, ideal organization man, lacked passion with respect to women (not a lover) and preferred to control women (particularly psychic women who were his opposite), pursued in order to possess (rather than woo), could be underhanded, narcissistic, arrogant, and unable to be intimate. George Bush (reminds women of their first husbands). Unsuccessful in love, not sexually spontaneous. Mother was probably physically undemonstrative. His life mission was “I will reveal to mankind the exact will of Zeus.” When he rose above his competence, trouble occurred -- he was unprepared to fail or falter. When he defeated a rival, he showed no mercy. A streak of cruelty, exercised within his legal rights. To grow, Apollo needed a streak of Dionysus (a place for him to be honoured, as at Delphi for 3 months). “The woman who most needs to be liberated is the woman inside every man.” Apollo was one of the most popular gods with innumerable shrines and sanctuaries scattered throughout the Greek world. The most important of these was the great oracle at Delphoi, which not only provided prophesies of the future, but also ruled on matters of religion. In classical sculpture Apollon was portrayed as a handsome youth, or adoscelent boy, with long unshorn locks of hair, often tied back above his head. His usual attributes were an arrow, lyre, lizard or snake (the latter symbolizing the Python serpent of Delphoi). Apollo is also well known for his big mistake in mocking a fellow god. One day he made fun of Eros, saying he had no archery skill and was too small to have much significance. Eros then shot an arrow at Apollo, making him infatuated with the sea nymph Daphne. He then shot another arrow at Daphne which made her unable to love anyone. Apollo continuously pursued Daphne until she finally called for help from a river god and she was changed into a laurel tree before Apollo could get to her. This is why the laurel is his sacred tree. There are several stories about Apollo as a man desperately in love, avenging the women who will not return his feelings: Cassandra was cursed to never be believed when she saw terrible things in the future, Daphne had to become a tree to escape him and he abandoned princess Creusa of Athens and their child. Apollo also loved men. In the story of the young man Hyacinthos Apollo accidentally kills his young lover with a discus, and is then transformed into the flower with the same name, where the letters AI AI can be read as the gods lament.
Dionysus -- Ambivalent. He was [is] nurtured, mothered and fathered by Zeus. Preferred to be with women and often came to their rescue. Women liked his influence, while men reacted strongly with ambivalent feelings. Dionysus was close to nature and women, familiar with the mystical realm and feminine world, often an unwelcome and disturbing element, a cause of conflict and madness, “the god of ecstasy and terror, of wildness and the most blessed deliverance”, mystic or murderer, divine child (specialness of person or destiny), actively repressed in men, regularity and constancy were foreign, shaman, psychological androgynous, capable of major emotional shifts precipitated by minimal events, focused on the moment, dancing and lovemaking were especially important, intense, spontaneous, sought full sensual experience (all five senses), tantric yoga advocate, individualistic (not a team player), noncompetitive, wildly promiscuous or celibate, erotic nature easily evoked, impersonal in lovemaking, sex experience more important than conquest, anorexic?, needed to leave behind the divine child image and become the hero. Rescued his mother from Hades. In Greek mythology Dionysus was the only god who rescued and restored (instead of dominating or raping) women, who represent diminished earlier goddesses, and whose people and worship had been conquered. “By ‘old boy’ standards, the Dionysus man is likely to be either too feminine, too mystic, too counter-culture, too threatening, or too attractive and too fascinating.” Hermes -- A favoured son. Emotionally distant and mentally active, welltravelled, into words, negotiations, and commerce, but avoided physical conflict. No wife or consort. Quick, mentally agile, wordsmith, crossed boundaries and shifted levels with ease, lucky, friendly, bachelor, united opposites, inventive, communicator of meaning, guide of souls, ability to think and act quickly (in order to achieve or deceive), rescuer of the child (saving what is innocent and vulnerable, or divine and sacred, by providing meaning for an otherwise terrible experience), problem solver (but seldom worried about right and wrong), messenger, trickster, wily, traveller between levels (integrated the realms of spirit, human life and soul), unplanned eloquence, spontaneous, acted on intuition, precocious, questioned the conventional rules of success, inventive generalist, charming, personal and experiential sexually, “Jack of all trades, master of none”, variety and newness may have overridden passion, the eternal adolescent living in the realm of possibilities, tended to rationalize. Hermes introduced fluidity, motion, new beginnings -- and the confusion that almost inevitably precedes new beginnings. A major way for Hermes to grow is through falling in love with a woman who thus becomes his Aphrodite. She 15
would become the challenge, someone he yearned for, and could not have immediately, who moved him, made him vulnerable and more sensual. Hephaestus -- A rejected son. He was [is] physical, manual rather than mental, motivated by emotions, did not use his mind or words. “Rejected and betrayed, Hephaestus put his feelings into the objects he made, using tools for a creative purpose.” Often ridiculed or called names by others, yielding low self-esteem. One who identified himself exclusively with his work, was at a total loss without it. Craftsman, inventor, artisan, loner, unvalued and rejected by the culture, earthy, passionate, creative, intense sexual and erotic fire, deeply introverted but would suddenly and unexpectedly erupt, crippled craftsman (or wounded artist, writer, healer, inventor, manufacturer) whose creativity was inseparable from his or her emotional wounds, sensitive to impending conflict, peacemaker, hard physical work saved him from depression, strong feelings not articulated, instinctual in his creativity, ill at ease, inner directed, bottled up his feelings, monogamous and faithful and expected his partner to reciprocate, here-and-now intensity, lacked a basic trust due to maternal rejection and neglect, his memory was not facts but events coloured by emotions, could be emotionally crippled, constricted in expression, and alienated from others, might have become the buffoon or clown (hey fes' tus), TV couch potato, the strong silent man stereotype. Son of devalued, angry, impotent mom. Given a genuine admiration for women with intelligence, assertiveness, or beauty, he was drawn to women with these qualities and then would often give them power over him. Hephaestus didn't strike back with his fists; instead, he devised elaborate plans to humiliate his persecutors. Zeus -- As chief of the gods, Zeus was required to lose touch with the earth in order to gain an overview; to see the forest but not the trees. The sky was also consciousness, “a perspective that exalts control, reason, and will.” He was King, “a man’s home is his castle”, husband, father (children as extensions of himself), expected his wife to run the household and parenting (while he was minimally involved), protective, generous, and trusting toward many of his sons and daughters (although his generosity was motivated by his desire to control them and was tied to his expectations of them), sought authority and power, risk taker, entrepreneur, focused and single minded (the eagle), alliance maker, philanderer, ambitious, pragmatist (not an idealist), accepted the world as it was and wanted his piece of it, never an intellectual nor introspective, didn’t waste time on other’s feelings or dwelling on the past, “Power is an aphrodisiac”, everyone was expendable to him, but there is no profit in making enemies, the “alpha male” who had his pick of females, women were a “perk”, not a good lover, not passionate and didn’t bother to try to please women. 16
Poseidon -- Brother to Zeus, but second rated. His symbols were the oceans and horses, both symbols of the unconscious, the sea’s powerful moods: turbulent, indiscriminate, tremendous destructive force, flood-bringer and earth-shaker, “the undersea is the realm of repressed personal feelings and instincts, and the emotional realm we humans share collectively.” The patriarchal culture allowed fathers as lord and master of their household to unleash fury there. They were trained, in a world ruled by Zeus, to devaluate and submerge their feelings and instincts. Poseidon’s temperament was his most characteristic feature. Bad-tempered, violent, vindictive, destructive, and dangerous, not content with his lot, lost out to others, plotted unsuccessfully against them, philanderer, rapist, fiercely loyal to his children, grudge holder, a placid sea which might erupt in fury, not a good loser, strived to be important (if not in the world, then in his home), sexually potent, indiscriminate and promiscuous, made no distinctions between young and old women, “the wild man at the bottom of the pool”, felt deeply and intensely, spontaneous, directly in touch with his feelings, physically demonstrative, didn’t plan (“It wasn’t raining when Noah built his Ark.”), academic achievement had little meaning, patriarchal attitude and emotionally powerful, capacity for loyalty and emotional depth, insensitive (he actually raped Demeter while she searched for Persephone), and vengeful (“an eye for an eye”). Poseidon wanted to achieve positions with status and power that would be the envy of others, only to find that the power was personally meaningless. Poseidon was Zeus’ shadow -- the emotional aspect of the father archetype that was repressed or buried, undeveloped and inaccessible in a man whose conscious identification was with Zeus. Hades -- God of the Underworld. He was [is] grim, inexorable, sternly just, irrevocable in his decrees; he was not evil in himself, not an enemy of mankind, nor a tempter of evil. His realm was the unconscious. He was the god of riches, the cornucopia or horn of plenty, the unseen presence. Human recluse, unaware of what is happening in the world, without a persona, invisible, without position or wealth, preferred the subjectivity and richness of his interior world, capable of “doing nothing”, a source of creativity, good counsellor, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Zeus and Hades), introverted, weak will or simply didn’t get-into-anuproar, autistic, secretive, “different”, but with an inner orientation which conveyed strength and thus did not make him a victim, cut off from the realm of emotions, emotionally illiterate, dreamer (“Fantasies and active imagination are voluntary descents to be entered and left at will.”). Both Zeus and Poseidon forced women sexually repeatedly, yet it was Hades who got the bad reputation; the others got away with it. 17
Notes: Having overviewed some of the most important archetypal Goddesses and Gods of Antiques Greece, choose your archetype (who you are most like) and your mentor (who you would like to emulate).
Nyx, Goddess of Night and the “Daughters of Night” Preface Nyx, being the dark daughter of the Night and Chaos in Greek Mythology, she is a real powerful Night Person. Which explains why she is the consort of Erebus the God of Darkness — or at least likes him enough for a night-time fling. Their children include Aether, Hemera and the Fates. They are also responsible for the morbid brothers Thanatos and Hypnos. Everyone feared the Night Goddess, even Zeus. In the “Illiad”, Homer says that she “has power over gods and men.” ... Black-winged Night Into the bosom of Erebus dark and deep Laid a wind-born egg, and as the seasons rolled Forth sprang Love, the longed-for, shining with Wings of gold. (Aristophanes) Goddess Nyx was one of the primeval deities, born from Chaos, a sister of Erebus (Darkness), whom she married. From their love several daughters were born: Aether (Atmosphere), Hemera (Day), Hypnos (Sleep), Thanatos (Death), Nemesis (Retribution), Moros (Doom) and maybe Styx. (I really find it curious that from two divinities of the darkness, the light was born). By parthenogenesis, she had Eris (Strife), the Hesperides, Oneiroi (the Dreams), the Moirae (the Fates), Geras (Old Age, whom she bore so as he could afflict people. Nyx goddess of night was very beautiful and very powerful. In the Illiad, Hera asks Hypnos to help her, by making Zeus sleep, so that she should have time to interfere with the war behind his back. But Hypnos turns her down, because the last time he had helped Hera, Zeus found out and Hypnos had to take refuge near his mother, Nyx, in order to get rid of Zeus' punishment. Nyx would 18
confront Zeus with a "maternal fury", so that's why even the king of all gods avoided stepping on her toes! She was represented as a winged goddess and was said to wear a veil of black mist on her head. In other descriptions she wears a "spangled robe" or a "blueblack headband" or a "blue-black robe". She was also described as a charioteer, who guides her chariot across the sky at night. In Ovid, she is described as having a poppy garland on her forehead. Some mentions about Nyx goddess of night come from descriptions of ancient paintings. Philostratus the Elder describes a scene in which Eos was mourning the death of her son, Memnon. Her tears made Helios go away and made Nyx cover in darkness the army, so that Eos could steal her son's body. Philostratus the Younger describes a painting in which Herakles, as a baby, strangles the two serpents sent to kill him. Nyx is present too, with a torch, so as to shed light on this scene, so that everyone could see how valiant the little child was.
The Legendary Nyx, Goddess of Night and the “Daughters of Night” Long before creation, even as told in the three first mythological chapters of Genesis, and the appearance of deities invented the humans, and they themselves, and nature, the ancients consequently believed that there existed only the formless void of chaos, black, empty, silent and endlessly deepened into infinity. According to the Orphic mysteries, out of the primeval chaos and nothingness arose the first deity, Nyx, Mother Night, in the form of a great black-winged spirit hovering over a vast sea of darkness. Ancient Night conceived of the Wind and laid her silver Egg in the gigantic lap of Darkness. The ancient symbol of the Orphic Mysteries (Dionysos is the principle Orphic deity) was the serpententwined egg which signified Cosmos as encircled by the fiery Creative Spirit. The egg represents the soul of the philosopher; the serpent, the Mysteries. It also symbolizes the belief in the Greek Orphic religion that the universe originated from within a silver egg. The Orphic egg, and the spermatozoa both represent fertility and creation. The spermatozoa is symbolic of birth in the outer world; the Orphic egg symbolizes spiritual rebirth. This famous egg was consecrated to Bacchus in his mysteries. It was, says Plutarch, an image of the universe, which engenders everything, and contains everything in its bosom.
The Cosmic Egg was the first definable matter that was created out of infinity. The World Egg was gigantic and silver in colour. When the great resplendent, silver Egg hatched, out sprang Protogonus (Πρωτογονυς), which literally means First-born, the first god. According to one Neo-Platonist writer, the Egg shell split in two: the two shells forming heaven and earth. The upper section of the gigantic Egg formed the vault of the sky and the lower section was the earth. From the Egg sprang the son of the rushing Wind, a god with golden wings, named Eros, the spirit of love. The most beautiful of all the immortal gods emerged to create the earth. In Ancient times, Eros was a beautiful muscular full-grown man. He was a powerful God, as love itself is one of the most powerful forces on Earth and like all the Ancient Deities, had both a good side and a bad. He brought love and healing to the mind, body and soul. Yet, at times was unsympathetic and careless with whom he touched, often causing more pain than joy.Even Eros himself was not immune to love. He lost his heart to a mortal girl, Psyche. Eros loved Psyche and constantly feared for her safety, as most mortals cannot look upon the radiance of a God and remain sane. He made Psyche swear that she would never look fully upon his face and he only visited her at night. Unfortunately, Psyche’s parents were unhappy with the situation and doubted Eros’ honesty. They thought 21
he was lying to their daughter and believed he was really a hideous beast in disguise. Psyche determined to prove her parents wrong, broke her promise to Eros by lighting an oil lamp during one of his nightly visits so she could look upon his face. When she beheld his beauty, her hands shook and she spilt oil on him. Eros, hurt from the hot oil and broken hearted from the betrayal, fled into the night. Upon learning of her son’s injury, Aphrodite became angry and swore vengeance on Psyche. She even went as far as attempting to kill the girl. Thankfully, Eros recovered from his wounds quickly and rescued his love from his mother‘s anger. They eventually married and had two children, Volupta and Nyx. Today Eros, the Greek God of love, is diminished to a naked or diaper clad cherub like boy. He does not command the respect or the admiration he once did. He has joined the ranks of old Gods, who are trivialized into cartoon and movie characters. Though the majority of humankind knows neither his true face nor name, he still rules the hearts of men and women alike. He is love, one of the strongest forces on Earth. The most beautiful of all the immortal gods emerged to create the earth. This firstborn of Mother Night is also known as Phanes, “the Revealer,” related to the Greek word for light. An Orphic hymn praises him, “Ineffable, hidden brilliant scion, whose motion is whirring, you scattered the dark mist that lay before your eyes and, flapping your wings, you whirled about, and through this world you brought pure light…”1 Nyx, whose name literally means “night”, was revered for her oracular powers. She could see beyond the night of the present, and her visions were made known from a cave that she shared with her son, Phanes. There Nyx displayed herself in a triple form as Night, Order, and Justice, and she ruled the universe until her power passed over to Uranus with the coming of the patriarchal gods. The myth should come from the Paleolithic era. From the early Aurignacian and on to the Magdalenian period, many engraved and sculpted images with silhouetted eggshaped buttocks featuring bird’s heads and long breasts have been found in western and central Europe. Nyx, invoked as nocturnal one, came from the earliest substratum of mythology, and of classical times she had little or no cult worship. Homer, who regarded Nyx as one of the greatest goddesses, of whom even Zeus stands in awe, tells in “Theogony” another version of the primal mother at the onset of creation.
“The Orphic Hymns”, translated by Apostoios Athanassakis (Atlanta: Scholar Press).
A Prayer to Goddess Nyx She walks in beauty Like the night Upon darkened hills Under starlit stars Bless the Moon Full tonight And enchanted magick Elemental night In the name of the Goddess The daughter And the Elements.2 Broad-bosomed Earth; Eros, the spirit of love; Erebus, the personification of darkness; and Nyx, primordial night, all fashioned out of the void. Then, from a union of Erebus and Nyx, were born Aether (Upper Air/Clear sky) and Hemera (Day). The Goddess of Night was said to live in Tartatus (the underworld) jointly with Day. Tartarus, the infernal regions of ancient Greek mythology. The name was originally used for the deepest region of the world, the lower of the two parts of the underworld or Abyss, where the gods locked up their enemies. It gradually came to mean the entire underworld. As such it was the opposite of Elysium, where happy souls lived after death. In some accounts Tartarus was one of the personified elements of the world, along with Gaea (Earth) and others. According to those accounts, Tartarus and Gaea produced the monster Typhon3. Of all the possible destinations for the dead or despised, Tartarus is closest to the idea of "Hell" - a dark, volcanic place of punishment for misdeeds. While it can 2
By Gadzookziie Spice 99 A lot of stuff here for good and even hot fictional stories. Here is where the souls of the wicked are tortured in the pits of Tartarus, the wailing and agony of the damned, resonated deep throughout the bowels of the Underworld. Inspiration for your stories. 3
be conceived of as a place entirely underground, it can also be thought of as a mountain, again drawing on the idea of a volcano. Immensely deep, Tartarus is also capable of holding gods in captivity, whether Titans or Olympians. Not much thought has been given to Tartarus of late, but now the "Immortals" movie - and its probable sequels - had refocused attention on Tartarus as it plays a role of its own in the film. Tartarus is served by multiple rivers, and throughout Greek and Roman concepts of the world of the dead, it at least seems to have offered good transportation by water. The ferryman Charon delivers the dead via boat to the gates of Tartarus. Hemera (Day) was the Protogenos (primeval goddess) of the day. She was a daughter of Erebos (Darkness) and Nyx (Night) and the sister-wife of Aither (Light). In the evening Hemera's mother Nyx drew a veil of darkness between the shining atmosphere of the aither and the lower air of earth (aer) bringing night to man. With each morn Hemera dispersed night's mists, bathing the earth again in the shining light of heaven (aither). In the ancient cosmogonies night and day were substances distinct and quite independent from the sun. Hemera was closely identified with Hera, the queen of heaven, and Eos, goddess of the dawn. Hesiod appears to regard her as more of a divine substance rather than anthropomorphic goddess. She was largely irrelevant in mythology, with her role being wholly subsumed by the goddess Eos. The Goddess Nyx of Night was said to live in Tartarus (the underworld) jointly with Day. When her daughter Hemera entered the palace, Nyx rode out in a chariot drawn by two horses. Accompanied by the stars, she transverse the heavens until daybreak, when she returned to the palace. Nyx was portrayed as a black-winged goddess draped in a dark garment. On her head was a black-spangled veil, and she held (not on the picture) an extinguished, inverted torch. She was sometimes shown carrying two children in her arms, one of them white to personify Sleep, and the other black to symbolize death. Erebus standing for Darkness and Nyx (Night) were soon deprived of the power by Aether (Light) and Hemera (Day), and the sceptre then passed to Uranus 24
(Sky) and Gaia (Earth) with the advent of new archetypal gods. In the earliest mythologies night was given priority of day, and the moon over the sun. With the transition to the new solar gods, the sun gain prominence over the moon and day over night. In cult worship the mysterious Goddess of Night became diminished, neglected, and consequently feared. Later genealogies made Nyx the mother of a sinister brood of children, only some which were deities. (Remember Gods and Goddesses are man-made, and have become archetypes by worshipping them, writing on them, in two words remembering them.) Everything that was inexplicable and frightful that befell humankind was personified and described as her offsprings. We already know but let us remember for the value of this story, Erebus (left) is known as primordial darkness and was born to Chaos and Nyx (Night). He was the father of Aether (the upper atmosphere) and Hemera (Day). Some stories also say that Charon is the son of Erebus and Nyx. Charon is the ferryman that takes the dead over the rivers of the infernal region. Erebus was called the personification of darkness and shadow. Some legends describe Erebus as the Infernal Region below the earth. This is also where the stories of Erebus being synonymous with Hades come in. The stories say that Hades was split into two regions. It is believed that he was part of Hades. Erebus was the top region where the dead have to pass through shortly after they have died. Tartarus is the deepest region which is where the Titans were imprisoned. Erebus is often used as a synonym itself for Hades and he is most commonly associated with these tales of darkness and hell. Erebus is sometimes also called Erebos. His father Chaos, was an asexual God and produced Erebus and his sister Nyx alone. Nyx then was Erebus’ consort and they had children themselves. Many mythological gods have names that are not 25
easily traced back to their source, like the Albion Gods as found in the Order of Nine Angles. Sometimes it is difficult to tell exactly where the name may have come from as there may be different possible meanings and origins for it. The name Erebus is believed to come from Proto-Indo-European language, “h1regwos”, cognate to Old Norse “rœkkr”, Gothic riqis "darkness", Sanskrit “rajani” "night", Tocharian “orkäm” "darkness". Some also believe that Erebus could be from Semitic, c.f. Hebrew erebh and Akkadian erebu "sunset, evening" ("darkness"). From Nyx were born some of the most powerful and portentous of the personified forces: Ker, Moros, and Thanatos as Death (contrary to Athanatos is Immortality). Not to forget, “immortality” is as long as someone or something is remembered. Hypnos as Sleep and Dreams; Momos as Mockery; Oizys as pain and Woe; Apate as Treachery; Geras as Grey Old Age; Eris as Strife; and Nemesis as Retribution. To the patriarchal solar consciousness of the ancient world, Night was a source of evil, while the mystic consciousness of Orphics, Night was a depth of love (Eros) and of light (Phanes). The deity Nyx, the Goddess of the Night symbolises the ground of the dark feminine principle that is the creative source of all that exists. According to Orphic tradition Nyx arose as a great, black winged spirit from the primeval chaos.4 Her story contains the key elements of black chaos, and void that describe the essential meaning of the dark. These elements have been distorted over the course of time like any legend, to finally symbolise our fears of the dark, being as such misunderstood. Let us look closer at the tale, myth or legend of the Orphic Egg of Creation and Mysteries. “The Orphic Egg” in the Ancient Greek Orphic tradition is the cosmic egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes/Protogonus (variously equated also with Zeus, Pan, Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromius) who in turn created the other gods. The egg is often depicted with a serpent wound about it.” …and the Typhon’s Egg, which is also called the cosmic egg, bearing mythical origins. The ancient Egyptians associated the golden egg with the sun. They dyed the eggs to be used as sacred offerings.
Like the Genesis account in the Hebrew Sacred Scripture, for the Christians the Old Testament, it is legendary and mythical, both beautiful stories, but none true.
The egg was clearly used as a fertility symbol and of regeneration of life. This belief dates back to the ancient Persians and Egyptians, who had also the tradition of coloring and eating eggs on their spring festival.” Where did the use of the egg come into the picture, hence becoming associated with the present tradition as the Easter egg is known today? It was Pope Paul V (1605-1621) who decreed a prayer saying. “Bless, O Lord, we beseech thee, this thy creature of eggs, that it may become wholesome sustenance unto thy servants, eating it in remembrance of Jesus of Nazareth.” It is basically analogizing that as the chick hatched out of the egg, so Jesus came out of the tomb. Perhaps it was done in the effort to conform religion to the well known ritualistic symbols of the ancient peoples. Metaphysically, in the occult tradition the Orphic Egg represents the soul of the philosopher, the serpent symbolizing the Mysteries. The egg signifies the Cosmos as encircled by the fiery Creative Spirit. The egg, a symbol for the earth, around which the snake (a feminine symbol, as is the moon) winds itself. The spiraling snake resembles the path our moon takes - the head and the tip of the serpent’s tail representing the moon’s position at its apparent halt in orbit. Referring to the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung: “The egg is a germ of life with a lofty symbolical significance. It is not just a cosmogonic symbol — it is also a “philosophical one”. As the former it is the Orphic Egg, the world’s beginning; as the latter, the philosophical egg of the medieval natural philosophers, the vessel from which, at the end of the opus alchymicum, the homunculus emerges… the spiritual, inner, and complete man.” The Orphics taught that the first principle was Cronus, or Time. From this came Chaos, symbolising the infinite, and Ether, symbolising the finite. Chaos was surrounded by Night, which formed the enveloping cover under which, by the creative action of Ether, cosmic matter slowly organised. This finally assumed the shape of an egg of which Night formed the shell. Hesiod related that darkness came first, and from Darkness sprang Chaos; and that Night was born from a union between Darkness and Chaos. A Jewish scholar Mory Sofer in his book “Questioning the Bible”, page 41 writes: “On the face of it, the biblical story of creation is a folk myth, like so many other folk myths around the world. People have always wondered where they came from, and how it all started. Many stories about the 27
origins of the universe and of human life have come down to us from civilisations as old or even older than the Bible. Some of the best known are the Babylonian Myth of Gilgamesh, the stories of Greek mythology, and the Popel Vu text of the ancient Maya. In all of those stories, some superhuman being or beings create the physical universe in which we live, and fashion human beings out of the elements of this physical creation, such as earth, water, and so on.” (Schreiber Publishing, Rockville, Maryland, USA).5 Creation myths the world over begin with chaos, but the original meaning of the word “chaos” did not imply confusion and turmoil. It meant the “infinite void”. And void, which we now think as black, empty, nothingness, referred to the nature of the primal matter that existed before creation. “Creation” is not a good word to use, better is “beginning”. Modern physics tells us that matter cannot be created or destroyed, but simply changed in form, moving back and forth between a solid state and an energy state. In Buddhist philosophy this principle is expressed as the doctrine of form and emptiness. The primal material of the void, embodied as Mother Night, refers to the condition of unity and the unlimited potentiality of all that exists before differentiation and actualisation begin the process of formation. In eastern philosophy black is interpreted and represents the formless state of matter, as pure energy, which is called emptiness. Devotions to the Black Mother in Eastern traditions involve meditations that cut away the delusion of dualism, which is the root cause of all suffering. Life is in a constant state of flux, arising out of itself as infinite numbers of forms and falling back into itself as emptiness, the formless energy. The black, empty void is the primordial foundation of all manifested forms, the ground of potentiality for everything that exists. Along ancient Greeks in the tale of Mother Night, who arose from chaos and gave birth to Eros/Phanes, LoveLight, who coordinated the elements and caused beings to come together in order to set the universe in motion. The Greek Nyx is related to the Egyptian Nut, Nuit, Neith, Goddess of the Black Night, who existed before heaven and earth were differentiated. Out of the watery womb arose the sun for the first time at creation, and back into the fathomless depths all things returned. Goddess Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. In them, Nyx, rather than Chaos, is the first principle. Nyx 5
Brief quotation permitted.
occupies a cave or adyton, in which she gives oracles. Kronos who is chained within, asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesises. Outside the cave, Adrastea clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon, moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx’s chanting. Phanes – the strange, monstrous, hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes’s Birds, which may be Orphic in inspiration. Here she is also the mother of Eros. In other texts she may be the mother of Charon (with Erebus), and Phthonus “envy” (with Dionysus?). The theme of Nyx’s cave or house, beyond the ocean (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos (as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical poem of Parmenides. It is speculated that the house of the goddess to which the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx; this hypothesis, however, must remain tentative. Goddess Nyx, the Black Mother, is very different from most goddesses. She can either be helpful or harmful to mankind. Nyx can bring you either sleep or death depending on the situation. So if you are following Nyx from the house of night novels beware. When we are ignorant of her truth, we experience a fear of the void and become involved in outer activity to escape the emptiness that terrifies us. We see this fear in those who cannot bear to have empty time or space in their lives or who have fear of being alone.
Short review: Goddess Nyx had prophetic powers, and gave oracles from a cave. Goddess of the night, she was also psychically, manipulating thoughts, bringer of truth. We know, it was said she was older and more powerful than Zeus, who deferred to Her wishes. Nyx resided in Tartarus, in the depths of Hades’ Underworld which Nyx shared with her daughter Hemera, the Goddess of the Day, though the two of them only met on passing during the transition from day to night. Her appearances in mythology are sparse, but reveal her as a figure of exceptional power and beauty. She was often depicted as having wings and wearing a long black flowing dress and veil covered in blinking stars. She turns day into night by spreading her veil out over the sky and enveloping the earth as she rides through the sky in a chariot. She is usually seen riding in the chariot, trailing stars and painting the night sky accompanied with her two sons, Hypnos and Thanatos. She is intuned 29
with cats and very powerful. She is forgiving loving and amazing. She is also the daughter of Chaos so she does have a bad temper. Nyx is a good Goddess to call forth when you need to reach your original true essence and awareness. For us, the lesson is: “We call forth Nyx to reclaim our awareness that our original essential nature arises out of formless potentiality embodied by the night.
The Daughters of Night Nyx gave birth to a number of offspring as detailed hereunder. Some of these children of Night were Eris (Discord or Strife), the Moirai (Fates), Hypnos (Sleep), Nemesis (Retribution), Thanatos (Death), and the Hesperides. While these beings were born from the goddess alone, without a father, Nyx also had children by the god Erebus. To Erebus the goddess bore Aether (Air) and Hemera (Day). Hesiod states that Night was the daughter of Chaos, which makes her one of the first creatures ever to emerge from the void. This means that Nyx was the sister to some of the oldest deities in Greek myth, including Erebus (Darkness), Gaia (the Earth), and Tartarus (the Underworld). From these primeval powers came the rest of the Greek gods and goddesses. And Nyx was responsible for bearing her share of divine children. The description that Goddess Nyx laid a silver egg is another way of saying that Mother Night gave birth to the moon, silver being the lunar metal. From primal Mother Night there also emerged three sets of daughters, each of whom was a manifestation of the triple nature of the moon, the Moirai, the Erinyes, the Hesperides; and a fourth, single daughter, Nemesis. The daughters of Goddess Nyx arose from the earliest stratum of deities at the beginning of creation, and they were representatives of the Triple Moon Goddess in her death aspect. Each of these daughters of Night reflects aspects of the dark side of the goddess. As we will read presently, Nemesis was the Goddess of Retribution, who maintained the equilibrium of the human condition. The Erinyes (also the Furies) protected the continuity of the material bloodline by avenging murders of family members. The Moirai (the Fates) spoke to the issue of fate, destiny, and the karmic patterning of the soul. And the Hesperides were the guardians of immortality (athanatos) and knowledge of the past. In our souls these dark 30
sisters represent the primal elements in the dark, unconscious side of our beings who protest the violation of natural laws. Reviewing what we learned, Goddess Nyx was born out of Chaos and was sister of Erebus.With Erebus Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day). Later, on her own, Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom, Destiny), Ker (Fate, Destruction, Death), Thanatos (Death), Hypnos (Sleep). the Oneiroi (Dreams), Momus (Blame), Oizys (Woe, Pain, Distress), the Hesperides, the Moirai (Fates), the Keres, Nemesis (Indignation, Retribution), Apate (Deceit), Philotes (Friendship, Love), Geras (Old Age). and Eris (Strife). In her triple aspect Goddess Nyx displayed herself as Night we already know, but standing also for Order and Justice. Her daughters’ tasks were to ensure that the natural laws of the universe were carried out and maintained. These sisters also saw to the punishment of those who transgressed these boundaries. Aether: In Greek mythology, Aether was the personification and elemental god of ' the bright, glowing upper air of heaven - the substance of light'. Aether embodies the pure upper air that the gods breathe, as opposed to normal air breathed by mortals. Aether was the son of Erebus (the god of darkness) and Nyx (the goddess of night) and the brother of Hemera (the goddess of day). Hemera: In Greek mythology, Hemera was primeval goddess of the day. Hemera was the daughter of Erebus, the god of darkness and Nyx, the goddess of night. Hemera was residing with her mother in Tartarus, but the two deities never met each other in home. Hemera (day) left Tartarus just as Nyx (night) entered it, when Hemera (day) return Nyx (night) left. The night and day were substances distinct and quite independent from sun. Hemera was female counterpart of her brother and consort Aether (brightness). Hemera was described as mother of Thalassa. In one version, Hemera was described as mother of Gaea (earth) and Uranus (sky). Thanatos: In Greek mythology, Thanatos was described as the god of 'nonviolent death' or 'peaceful death'. Thanatos was son of Erebus, the god of darkness and Nyx, the goddess of night. In some version Thanatos was described as son of Nyx with no father. Thanatos carried the spirits of the death to the shores of Styx where they waited to be ferried across by Charon (ferryman). Thanatos was often paired with his twin brother Hypnos (sleep). Thanatos was once defeated by Hercules, who wrestle him to save the life of Alcestis, the wife of Admetus. Thanatos was also tricked by Sisyphus, the king of Corinth, who wanted a second chance to live. 31
Hypnos: In Greek mythology, Hypnos was the personification of sleep. Hypnos was the son of Nyx without any union. In some versions, Hypnos was described as the son of Nyx and Erebus. Hypnos lived in the dark cave, in the underworld or Erebus, the land of eternal darkness beyond the gates of rising sun. The dark cave entrance was full of poppies and other hypnotic plants. The river Lethe, also know as the river of forgetfulness, flows through the cave. In one version, Hypnos was described to live in the cave under island Lemnos. Hypnos was represented as a gentle young man, usually with wings attached to his temples or shoulder. Hypnos was often paired with his twin brother Thanatos (peaceful death). Hypnos wife Pasithea, was one of the youngest of the Graces and was promised to him by Hera, the goddess of marriage and birth. Pasithea was the deity of hallucination or relaxation. According to one version, Hypnos and Pasithea had thousand children and in other version they had four sons, the Onerioi (dreams)- Morpheus, Ikelos, Phobetos, and Phantasos. According to some version, the Oneino were sons of Nyx and brothers of Hypnos. Oneiroi: In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi were the dark winged spirits of dreams. They emerged each night like a flock of bats from their cavernous home in Erebus, the land of eternal darkness beyond the rising sun. Oneiroi were described as sons of Nyx (without any union) or of Nyx (night) and Erebus (darkness), and were brother of Hypnos (sleep), Thanatos (death), Geras (old age), and other being. According to other version Oneiroi were thousand, sons of Hypnos (sleep) by Pasithea. Mainly four of Oneiroi are mentioned: Icelus was responsible for creating true dream, making them more realistic. Phobetor was the creator of scary dream and was personification of nightmare, taking the form of huge and scary animal. Phantasus was one creating the face and illusional dreams and had no form. Morpheus, the leader of the Oneiroi, described as a god who appeared in the dreams of kings and heroes in guise of man, delivering messages from the gods and influence the dreams of gods. Oizys: In Greek mythology, Oizys was described as the goddess or spirit of misery and woe, distress and suffering. Oizys was daughter of Nyx, the goddess of night, without a father, and the twin of the Momos. In some versions Oizys was described as the daughter of Erebus, the god of dark, and Nyx. Nemesis: In Greek mythology, Nemesis is described as daughter of Nyx (night) with no father, in some versions she is described as daughter of Erebus and Nyx, or Oceanus. Nemesis was often depicted as a winged goddess. Nemesis was the goddess of indignation against and retribution for, evil deeds and undeserved good fortune. Nemesis distributes happiness and unhappiness, and take care that happiness was not too frequent or too excessive. If this happene Nemesis could bring about losses and suffering. According to some versions, Nemesis was the 32
mother of Helen. When Zeus show his interest towards Nemesis, she to avoid him, turns into a goose. Zeus turns into a swan and mate with her. Nemesis in her bird form laid an egg that was found by shepherd. Shepherd gave it to Leda, who carefully kept it in a chest until the egg hatched, Leda adopted Helen as her daughter. Philotes opposite number were Neikea (feuds). In some version Philotes was described as the spirit of sexual intercourse. Geras: In Greek mythology, Geras was the god of old age. Geras was depicted as a tiny shrivelled us old man. Geras was son of Nyx and Erebus or of Nyx with no father. Geras's opposite was Hebe, the goddess of youth. According to one version, Zeus put mortal men in trouble by sending women and Old Age to them. Eris: In Greek mythology, Eris is described as personification of strife. Eris is described as daughter of Nyx (night) and according to other version as a daughter of Zeus and Hera. Eris was the friend and sister of Ares, and with him she delights in the tumult of war, increasing the moaning of men. She is insatiable in her desire for bloodshed and after all the other gods have withdrawn from the battle field, she still remains rejoicing over the havoc that has been made. Eris is described as the mother of a variety of allegorical being, which are the causes or representative of man's misfortunes. When Eris alone was not invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, she threw down among the guests a golden apple inscribed "for the most beautiful." Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each claimed it, and Zeus assigned the task of judging to the Trojan Paris. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, who in return helped him carry off the beautiful Helen, an act that triggered war. The early Greek concept of justice and natural law evolved from the vision of an orderly, interconnected universe. Nature proceeded according to patterns that were not careless or random, and this implied the existence of some kind of foundational intelligence in the intricate complexity of the workings of the universe. Human beings also partook of the organic patterning of the universe; but when they acted in ways that were not in accordance with or harmed this natural order, the universe reacted. The daughters of Night were charged with balancing or avenging the transgressions of individuals when they overstepped the laws of natural development or the limits set by necessity.
Nemesis, The Erinyes, The Hesperides in Full Nemesis
Nemesis, daughter of primordial Mother Night, was most widely known as the Goddess of Retribution. While her patriarchy perceived her as a monstrous figure of revenge and anger, her earlier nature was more as an abstract force of justice rather than that of retaliation. She was the personification of the reverence for law, and she sought to restore balance when order was upset. Her endeavours to preserve an equilibrium in people’s attitudes toward one another were recognised as springing from a deep-seated love. Divine retribution is a major theme in the Hellenic world view, providing the unifying theme of the tragedies of Sophocles and many other literary works. Hesiod states: "Also deadly Nyx bore Nemesis an affliction to mortals subject to death." (Theogony, 223, though perhaps an interpolated line). Nemesis appears in a still more concrete form in a fragment of the epic Cypria.
She is implacable justice: that of Zeus in the Olympian scheme of things, although it is clear she existed prior to him, as her images look similar to several other goddesses, such as Cybele, Rhea, Demeter, and Artemis. Nemesis was depicted as a thoughtful, queenly figure, radiant with some Aphrodite’s beauty. She wore a silver crown adorned with staghorns, carried a wheel of fortune in one hand and an apple bough in the other, with a scourge hanging at her girdle. The wheel indicates that she may be derived from Kala-Nemi, the Mother of Karma and of the wheel time. The apple bough shows her relationship to her sisters the Hesperides, who guarded the golden apples of immortality. Nemesis’s primary sanctuary was in Rhamnus in Attica. There, winged and draped in white, she was worshiped along with Adios (Shame) as attendants to Themis, the Goddess of Law. It has been said that should Themis be discarded, there is Nemesis. When the individuals broke the social rules that Themis represented then Nemesis, powerful in her righteous anger, tormented those who violated this order, especially nature’s law and ethic. Nemesis was said to be check on Tyche, Goddess of Fortune, who discriminately heaped gifts upon some people deprived others of all they had, and in so doing so exemplified the uncertainty of chance. However, if a person who had been bestowed with abundant good fortune did not offer a portion to the gods or to charity, then the ancient goddess Nemesis stepped in to humiliate him er her. She was known as Adastria, the Inescapable One, who embodied the anger of the gods toward those who committed the crime of hubris, pride, and insolence before the gods. Ovid called her the “goddess who hates boastful words”, because she brought all kings and heroes down to destruction in the end, no matter how arrogant they might have become.
Nemesis, through the course of patriarchal culture, grew to become a philosophic concept of divine vengeance on overweening mortals. As an impersonal moral force Nemesis appeared to overtake every act of wrong. She was held in awe and fear as a mysterious power that shaped the behaviour of individuals in their time of prosperity, punishing crime and evil deeds, taking lunch away from the unworthy, tracking every wrong to its doer, and keeping society in equipoise. Nemesis also personified the resentment aroused in people when other who committed crimes were not punished as today in our society, or toward those who had inordinate or underserved good fortune. Nemesis, daughter of Night, existed as one of the first forces to ensure that humanity respected the natural laws that maintained the order of the universe. When we pay honour to this goddess and live in harmony with these laws, then Nemesis resides within us as a wise kindly influence, ever-guiding us toward right action. Zeus’ rape of Nemesis is an allegorical statement of taking the law in own hands, deciding what was right and wrong. Even in our today’s world many people, at least of a certain category, listen and obey religious leaders without thinking for themselves. When the power passed over to the patriarchal gods, Nemesis was banished, and the new order ignored her jurisdiction over the codes of right conduct. Then, like the shadow who flourishes in exile and assumes the demonic form of negative views and actions, Nemesis came to be personified by the patriarchy as divine vengeance and retribution, angrily claiming her due. As we continue to deny this goddess her position of honour, she operates in our unconscious psyche, via projection, as the wrathful forces in our world that will not allow us to get away with wrongdoing. When we try to get away with wrong action and avoid our responsibilities, we live in terror that the fury of Nemesis will eventually catch up with us and inflict her punishment, a punishment that uncannily fits the crime.
The Erinyes Who were the Furies of Ancient mythology? The meaning and definition of Furies are as follows: Definition of Furies: The Furies were the goddesses of Vengeance and Retribution also referred to as the “infernal goddesses”. According to Greek Mythology they were the daughters of Nyx the ancient dark goddess. The Furies were described as horrible winged women, often draped in black, with serpent hair and eyes that dripped with blood. The Furies personified conscience and punished crimes. The Furies or Dirae (meaning the 'Dread Ones') typically had the 36
effect of driving their victims insane, hence their Latin name “Furor”. The Furies was the collective name given to these terrifying goddesses in Roman mythology and corresponded to the Erinyes in Greek Mythology. The names of the Furies were Megaera, Tisiphone and Alecto.
In detail. The Furies, the three infernal goddesses of vengeance and retribution personified conscience and punished crimes and each also had specific traits that they were associated with:
Megaera was described as the 'jealous one' Tisiphone was described as the 'blood avenger' Alecto was described as 'unceasing in pursuit'
The Furies (Erinyes) were virgin goddesses, but they were not beautiful or innocent like other goddesses. Their appearance was frightful, they were horribly ugly, hideous, merciless, full of blood lust and madness. They carried a whip of vipers. The writer Ovid, in Metamorphoses, describes the Furies with Tisiphone wearing "a robe all red with dripping gore and wound a snake about her waist". The snakes that were entwined in her hair were described as "The snakes, dislodged, gave hissing sounds; some crawled upon her shoulders; some, 37
gliding round her bosom, vomited a slime of venom, flickering their tongues and hissing horribly." Indeed, in Greek mythology the Erinyes or Eumenides (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. They were usually said to have been born from the blood of Uranus that fell upon Gaia when Cronus castrated him; i.e., they were chthonic (earth) deities. According to a variant account, they were born from Goddess Nyx. Their number is usually left indeterminate, though Virgil, probably working from an Alexandrian source, recognized three; Alecto ("unceasing"), Megaera ("grudging"), and Tisiphone ("avenging murder"). The heads of the Erinyes were wreathed with serpents, their eyes dripped with blood, and their whole appearance was terrific and appalling. Sometimes they had the wings of a bat or bird, or the body of a dog. ”Hard by (Areopagos, Athens) is a sanctuary of the goddesses which the Athenians call Semnai, but Hesiod in the Theogony calls them Erinyes. It was Aeschylos who first represented them with snakes in their hair. But on the images neither of these nor or any of the underworld deities is there anything terrible.” (Pausanias) The Erinyes generally stood for the rightness of things within the standard order; for example, Heraclitus declared that if Helios decided to change the course of the Sun through the sky, they would prevent him from doing so. But for the most part they were understood as the persecutors of mortal men and women who broke "natural" laws. In particular, those who broke ties of kinship through patricide, murdering a brother (parricide), or other such familial killings brought special attention from the Erinyes. It was believed in early epochs that human beings might not have the right to punish such crimes, instead leaving the matter to the dead man's Erinyes to exact retribution. The goddess Nike filled a similar role. When not stalking victims on Earth the Furies were thought to dwell in Tartarus where they applied their tortures to the damned souls there. The Erinyes are particularly known for the persecution of Orestes for the murder of his mother, Clytemnestra. Since Apollo had told Orestes to kill the murderer of his father, Agamemnon, and that person turned out to be his mother, Orestes prayed to him. Athena intervened and the Erinyes turned into the Eumenides ("goodly ones"), as they always did in their beneficial aspects. Many scholars believe that they were originally referred to as the Eumenides not to reference their good sides but as a euphemism to avoid their wrath by 38
calling them by their true name. This is similar to the taboo on speaking the names of certain spirits in many cultures. The Erinyes were also known as Semnai ("the venerable ones"), the Potniae ("the Awful Ones"), the Maniae ("the Madnesses") and the Praxidikae ("the Vengeful Ones"). The Furies (their Roman name) or Dirae ("the terrible") typically had the effect of driving their victims insane, hence their Latin name furor. Virgil VII, 324, 341, 415, 476.
The Furies (Erinyes) and Hades People, not surprisingly, were terrified of Hades the god of the Underworld, and believed it brought bad fortune to even mention the god by name. He was referred to as 'Prince of Darkness' or Aidoneus meaning the “Unseen One” for fear of attracting his attention. The same applied to the Furies and the many who feared to speak their name called them by euphemisms such as Eumenides meaning the “Kind Ones”. The main responsibility of Hades was to ensure that the punishments of the dead decreed by the gods were carried out. However, such tortures and punishments were usually inflicted by the Furies (Erinyes). Nemesis, the goddess of vengeance and punishment was ascribed the responsibility of keeping the Furies in check. "They [the Furies] sat a-kembing foul black snakes from off their filthy hair before the dungeon door, the place where caitiffs punished were"
The Role of the Furies (Erinyes) The Furies were thought to dwell in Tartarus, a dark abyss, below the Underground - the equivalent of Hell. Their role was to apply their tortures to the damned souls there. The Furies acted as agents of the Fates (Moirai), exacting the punishments decreed by the gods and were also associated with the Keres, the 'Death Spirits'. When called upon to act, the Furies ascended to earth to pursue the wicked and unpunished criminals. The Furies were relentless, unceasing in pursuit, and hounded their victims until they died in a "furor" of madness or torment.
“The Furies” by Aeschylus In classical literature Aeschylus (525–456 B.C.) describes their role in his work 'The Furies' "Of Justice are we ministers, and whosoe'er of men may stand lifting a pure unsullied hand, that man no doom of ours incurs, and walks thro' all his mortal path untouched by woe, unharmed by wrath. But if, as yonder man, he hath blood on the hands he strives to hide, we stand avengers at his side, decreeing, thou hast wronged the dead: we are doom's witnesses to thee. The price of blood his hands have shed, we wring from him: in life, in death, hard at his side are we!". In response to a question from Athena the the chorus of Furies answers: "We are the children of eternal Night, and Furies in the underworld are called... We chase from home the murderers of men" (Aeschylus, The Furies Part II)
The Powers of the Furies (Erinyes) The Furies possessed all the supernatural Powers of the Greek Gods including immortality, superhuman strength, stamina, vitality, and resistance to injury. They also had the power of flight and invisibility. The writer Ovid, in Metamorphoses describes poisons with magic power:. "Tisiphone brought with her poisons too of magic power: lip-froth of Cerberus, the Echidna’s venom, wild deliriums, blindnesses of the brain, and crime and tears, and maddened lust for murder; all ground up, mixed with fresh blood, boiled in a pan of bronze, and stirred with a green hemlock stick."
Furies (Erinyes) - Matricide and Patricide The Furies were especially vigilant of crimes that were committed within a family, of which matricide and patricide were viewed as the most heinous of crimes. Matricide is the murder of a mother and patricide is the murder of a father. In Ancient Greece and Rome such crimes were expected to be avenged by the children of murdered parents. The Furies would haunt a son who had failed to avenge a parent who had been killed unjustly. The Furies were relentless and hounded their victim until he made retribution on the death of his parents. 40
Mythology of the Furies (Erinyes) - The Harpies There is myth that tells of the Harpies and the Furies. King Pandareos stole a golden dog from the shrine of Zeus and was punished by the gods, as were his daughters. The Harpies were terrible creatures with the head of woman and the body of a vulture. The Harpies were perpetually devoured by the pangs of insatiable hunger, which caused them to torment their victims by robbing them of their food. The Harpies had the power rapid flight that far surpassed that of the winds. The Harpies took away the daughters of King Pandareos to act as slaves to the Furies (Erinyes).
Mythology of the Furies (Erinyes) – Orestes The Furies feature in the Myth of Orestes and Agamemnon in which they appear as the agents of revenge for Clytemnestra, the mother of Orestes. Orestes had killed Clytemnestra to avenge the murder of his father, Agamemnon. The goddess Athena absolved Orestes of guilt in the murder of his mother, and in order to appease the Furies (Erinyes) she gave the Furies a grotto at Athens where they received sacrifices and libations where they became euphemistically known as the Eumenides (the kindly ones).
The Furies (Erinyes) - The Eumenideia The Eumenideia was an annual festival in honor of the Eumenides (euphemism for the Erinyes) which was held in Athens. The Mystai (priests) made the preliminary sacrifices to the Eumenides of cakes and libations of water and milk. A libation was a ritual pouring of a liquid as an offering to the gods. The aim of their rite was to placate dead souls. Animal sacrifices were then made at the Eumenideia in the form of black sheep which were burnt in a night ceremony. Wine was poured onto the animal as part of its ritual slaughter and preparation, and then afterwards onto the ash and flames. The Eumenideia was an important festival and due to the nature of the goddesses only free-born citizens of known virtue and integrity were admitted as the only acceptable attendees. The symbols of the Eumenides were turtle doves and the narcissus.
Invocations to the Furies (Erinyes) The Furies brought terror but also a sense of justice to mortals. According to the traditions and beliefs of the Ancient Greeks, people would invoke the aid of the 41
Furies to gain justice, retribution and revenge for wicked acts that had gone unpunished. These invocations took the form of a prayer for retribution from the 'infernal goddesses'. An example of an invocation to the Furies:
"I plead to thee, oh Furies, avenge these heinous deeds. Descend with wings of razors, grant me the vengeance that I seek. I beg for retribution. Let the rivers all run red, punish those who swear false oaths and allow me my revenge." Furies Family Tree and Genealogy Nyx, the dark goddess of darkness, was the mother of many of the Gods of death and darkness. Some were the result of her union with Erebus, another important god of the infernal region. The family members and genealogy of the Furies are detailed in the following family tree, providing an overview of the relationships between the Furies and some of the principle Greek gods and goddesses of the Underworld. In ancient Greek mythology the Furies (Erinyes) were strongly associated with the Maniae, evil spirits personifying Insanity, madness and crazed frenzy and Insania or Mania, the goddess of insanity. They were also companions of their sister Lyssa, the goddess of mad rage and frenzy.
Erinyes Grimoire When we banish the Erinyes and do not allow them to exercise their power in protecting the code of right relationship to our family members (friends can also be called “family”), they will emerge in our shadow selves as our worst enemies. When the shadow Erinyes take over our lives, we may discover the furious, raging personality within us, consumed with a desire for vengeance. Caught in the grip of this archetype, we may commit horrible and ugly deeds against our kinsfolk or other loved ones whom we think have wronged either us or a member of our family. The Erinyes will take the form of our subsequent pangs of conscience. They will torment us relentlessly with remorse, guilt, and fear of retaliation or punishment. As we internalise the role of these avenging deities, our tortured conscience will cause us to go mad and, in some cases, even kill ourselves. In our evocation of the forces of Night, after Nyx and Nemesis, we honour the “Three Erinyes, who teach us that it is not necessary for us to commit crimes of vengeance in order to “get even.” There exists a mechanism in the harminous order of the universe that ensures the punishment of offenders and restore balance. 42
The Hesperides and the Eleventh Labour of Hercules
The Hesperides are the Greek nymphs of the sunset and partially the ocean who tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, located near Mount Tamalpais. They are the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. However, in some genealogies the Hesperides are the children of Phorcys and Ceto; and later mythologies make them the daughters of giant King Atlas, who stood upon the western edge of the world and supported the heavens on his shoulders. Other names that have given to the Hesperides are Lipara, “of soft radiance,” Chrysothemis, “golden law and order,” and Asterope, “star-brillant.” The Hesperides guard the Garden of the Hesperides, to keep thieves from stealing Hera's golden apples. Hera doesn't trust them very much, and had a dragon with one hundred heads, Ladon, guard it. There are currently four Hesperides, as Zoë Nightshade had betrayed her family by giving Hercules a weapon and aiding him in stealing the golden apples. She became a Hunter of Artemis after being disowned.
The Hesperides sing to the people that come to their garden, and convince them to dance with them. They will then 'dance' the person to death, unless it is a man. The Hesperides are fond of men, as they are not allowed to leave their garden and rarely get to see any men. The Hesperides are very beautiful, with caramel coloured skin, long, silky black hair, tumbling loose around their shoulders and volcanic black eyes. They wear white Ancient Greek chitons, and they speak in a very old language that could be Ancient Greek.
The Eleventh Labour of Hercules. Poor Hercules! After eight years and one month, after performing ten superhuman labors, he was still not off the hook. Eurystheus demanded two more labors from the hero, since he did not count the hydra or the Augean stables as properly done. Eurystheus commanded Hercules to bring him golden apples which belonged to Zeus, king of the gods. Hera had given these apples to Zeus as a wedding gift, so surely this task was impossible. Hera, who didn't want to see Hercules succeed, would never permit him to steal one of her prize possessions, would she? These apples were kept in a garden at the northern edge of the world, and they were guarded not only by a hundred-headed dragon, named Ladon, but also by the Hesperides, nymphs who were daughters of Atlas, the titan who held the sky and the earth upon his shoulders. Hercules' first problem was that he didn't know where the garden was. He journeyed through Libya, Egypt, Arabia, and Asia, having adventures along the way. He was stopped by Kyknos, the son of the war god, Ares, who demanded that Hercules fight him. After the fight was broken up by a thunderbolt, Hercules continued on to Illyria, where he seized the sea-god Nereus, who knew the garden's secret location. Nereus transformed himself into all kinds of shapes, trying to escape, but Hercules held tight and didn't release Nereus until he got the information he needed. The quest for the Golden Apples was the eleventh labour of Hercules set by Eurystheus. The golden apples belonged to Zeus, king of the gods and had been given by Hera as a wedding gift.
The Golden Apples were kept in a garden at the northern edge of the world, and were guarded by a hundred-headed dragon, named Ladon. The Garden was also the abode of the Hesperides, nymphs who were daughters of Atlas, the titan who held the sky and the earth upon his shoulders. The first task in the quest was to find the location of the Garden. After journeying through many lands Hercules arrived in Illyria, where he seized the sea-god Nereus, who knew the garden's secret location. Once he had the location, he continued, beset with dangers, Hercules was stopped by Antaeus, the son of the sea god, Poseidon, who also challenged Hercules to fight. Later, Hercules was captured by Busiris, another of Poseidon's sons, and was led to an altar to be a human sacrifice. But Hercules escaped, killing Busiris, and continued his journey. Eventually he came to the rock on Mount Caucasus where Prometheus was chained. Prometheus, who had stolen the secret of fire from the Gods, was sentenced by Zeus to a horrible fate. He was bound to the mountain, and every day a monstrous eagle came and ate his liver, at night, Prometheus' liver grew back, and the next day he had to endure the eagle's painful visit all over again. Hercules slew the eagle and in gratitude, Prometheus told Hercules the secret to getting the apples. He would have to send Atlas after them, instead of going himself. Atlas hated holding up the sky and the earth so much so, that he agreed to the task of fetching the apples, if Hercules would carry the burden of the world. On returning with the golden apples, Atlas told Hercules he would take them to Eurystheus himself, and asked Hercules to stay there and hold the heavy load for the rest of time. Hercules slyly agreed, but asked Atlas whether he could take it back again, just for a moment, while he put some soft padding on his shoulders to help him bear the weight of the sky and the earth. Atlas put the apples on the ground, and lifted the burden onto his own shoulders. In doing so, he allowed Hercules to retrieve the Apples, make good his escape and carry them back to Eurystheus. Because the Apples belonged to the gods, they could not remain with Eurystheus and so he had to return them to Athena, who took them back to the garden at the northern edge of the world. This legend of the Hesperides, which contains the elements of the garden, the apple, and the serpent, is an forerunner of the biblical story of the Garden of Eden. The golden apples of immortality are a symbol of the cycles of renewal. 45
In the Jewish myth the serpent, who represented the principle of evil, tempted humanity to partake of the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. As such it represents the patriarchy’s long persecution of learning concerning the death and renewal mysteries of the Dark Moon Goddess and her serpent. The Twelve Labours of Hercules can be read on one level as the hero’s conquest of the Goddess. In the eleventh labour Hercules must steal the golden apples of the Hesperides. After many journeys and inquiries trying to discover the whereabouts of the golden apples, Hercules was finally directed to King Atlas, who the Olympians made to be the father of the Hesperides. Atlas had built a wall around the garden to protect its treasures, because he had been warned by Themis that one day a son of Zeus would strip his tree of its gold. As the classical version of the story is told, King Atlas, after listening to all Hercules had to say, promised to fetch the apples if Hercules would relieve him of his burden for an hour’s respite and hold up the heavens in his stead. However, Atlas feared Ladon, so Hercules killed the serpent with an arrow shot over the garden wall. Atlas then entered his daughters’ garden and plucked the golden apples. Dim is the light at first. Selfish the trend of human aspiration, and dark the deeds resultant. Slowly men learn and, in learning, pass between the pillars of the Gates time and again. Relishing his sense of freedom, Atlas did not want to resume the weight of the world. When he returned to the place he had left Hercules, he offered to carry the golden apples himself to Eurystheus. Hercules pretended to acquiesce, but asked Atlas to first hold the heavens for one moment while he placed a pad on his head. Atlas, easily deceived, laid the apples on the grass and took back the world again. Hercules then grabbed the apples and easily strode away. Other legends have it that Hercules himself entered the garden, killed the serpent who watched over the tree and stole the golden fruit. The apples were later returned to the garden by Athena, because the sacred fruits were not to remain long anywhere else. Shortly afterward the nymphs of the West were visited by Jason and the Argonauts. The Hesperides, frightened after Hercules’ theft of their treasures, transformed themselves into trees – Hespere into a poplar, Erytheis into an elm, and Aegle into a willow. When they realized that the stranded Argonauts were not hostile, they showed them a spring that Hercules had created in the desert so that they could quench their thirst. The Hesperides and the serpent Ladon are the guardians of the golden apples. The apple, along with the pomegranate, is the fruit of the underworld, and “Fruits of the Moon Tree,” it represents the fruiting of the creative imagination. 46
The golden apples are also the symbol of immortality, and, as such, they preserve our knowledge of cyclical renewal. When we meditate, we are engaged in reverie, or experience psychic vision, this is often felt as a rushing up the spine, the rising of, the kundalini energy, symbolised by the snake. The kundalini snake rises in creative vision, flowers in the garden of the mind, and matures as the fruits of the imagination. In our consciousness the golden apples represent the essence of our past lives, previous incarnations archetypal, and the collective essence of the continued and eternal part of humanity. The Hesperides guard the knowledge of our past in order to protect our conscious awareness from becoming overwhelmed by information that we may not have the wisdom to understand nor the capacity to integrate. In their sweet singing voices the Hesperides tell us there are some things that are better for us not to know unless we have been “initiated”. The Path of Initiation and discipleship awaits every human being, who must follow it to its end in order to arrive to the house of Knowledge, from which we mistakenly think we have been cast. We must live this solitude to the utmost, in order to discover that we were never really alone and that our Higher Self, Mind, soul was watching over us at all times. Myth has always accompanied the human being, but over time has taken on the appearance of legend and has been recounted as a fable. In actual fact, myth conserves the memory of our divine nature and the key to rediscovering it. The first of the mythological heroes is Hercules, who, as all human beings, carries out the necessary efforts in order to raise his eyes to the sky and identify himself with his soul. The Path of initiation is rediscovered when we value what we have, trusting that life knows how to fill every gap, and that suffering is the necessary spur to launch us to a greater awareness. In the adventures of this hero we recognise our own small acts of everyday heroism, the value of which is often diminished by our overriding personality. The Hesperides too, teach us that we are immortal (as long as we are remembered), and that as such we have an infinite past. Knowledge of the past and its impact upon the present and the future are tied up with the questions of fate and destiny.
Traditional Moon Goddess Ritual Full Moon Ritual (After Midnight preferably outside) Foreword: Don’t miss the psychic powers of the Underworld, the Abyss, your mind. Meditation at the Full Moon especially is the right approach to the Dark Goddess, the Mother. Contemporary psychology reframes this ancient wisdom in suggesting that a safe and helpful relationship to the powers of the unconscious is to be gained through a right approach to the shadow. Nyx, the Goddess of Night, is the foundational mother of all the various goddesses of the dark moon who reside as forces in the unconscious sphere of our psyches. The ancient Dark Goddess who has been rejected has by the Abraham religions (Jews, Christians and Islam) has come in modern psychology, to symbolise the feminine shadow. Because the daughters of Night inhabit the dark places in our psyche, they are difficult to access with the waking eye or conscious mind. Although we may not in a conscious sense be aware of their presence, or even acknowledge their existence, they live in us as foundations within our unconsciousness. If we pay respect to the dark forces in our unconscious, our inner dark goddesses will be disposed toward us and provide insight, healing and renewal. It is when we demean and exile the dark that her daughters (like the shadow self when rejected and denied) will, during our weakest moments, unexpectedly burst forth into our conscious reality. When the dark, feminine shadow deities take over with a vengeful autonomy of their own, they bring terror, destruction, and madness into our lives. As the Dark Goddess archetype evolved through patriarchal culture, she became an object of fear and persecution. Over the course of history, the healing and prophetic wisdom of the Dark Goddess has been distorted as sorcery, and her image has been demonised by practically all religions into the ugly death-bringing hag or the witch, consort of the devil. The fundamental Muslims in Iraq killing and burying recently alive five-hundred believers or citizen in the name of Allah, the God of the Jews, 48
Instructions: Full Moon Ritual, the powerful energy of the Goddess. Share in the powerful energy of the Full Moon. Participate in the spirituality of this planet. Join us in the Moon Circle. We are searching for our spirituality by bringing back the ancient choices and rituals into an open Goddess ritual. It is alright when you feel the need to dedicate this ritual to Mother Moon. The days before the Full Moon are filled with energies and growth. Whatever you want to stimulate growing and prosper dedicate this feeling in the days before the Full Moon. Whatever you dedicate after the full moon, will be in the spirit of the waning moon.The light of the Full Moon cleanses and energizes. Expose everything you want to be cleansed to the moon light. For example: tarot cards, gemstones, candles, yourself, etc. Note also: The female aspect of divinity is related to the Moon. Mary is often pictured with her feet standing on the Moon crescent. That is why the Full Moon is the time especially dedicated to the Goddess and also the time full of energy and blessing. For meditation and spirituality it is helpful, blessing, healing, uplifting and heart warming to have a Full Moon Ritual. 49
The ritual can be dedicated to the Goddess Moon, or any Goddess. The Full Moon Ritual is NOT a night ritual, but I do recommend to practice it after midnight. However, a Full Moon Ritual or meditation is more often during the day.The powerful energy of the Full Moon makes it possible to dedicate deepest wishes and to overcome great difficulties.
Instructions for any other Moon or Goddess Ritual: A new moon or dark moon in whatever moon phase, it is the perfect time for new beginnings along your desires. This is the perfect time for starting new ventures, new studies, new interests, new projects, new beginnings or just to recharge your current goals. As always, before your ritual you need to determine the element for the new moon or any other phase. This way you can have the correct candle colour correspondences as you feel inspired. For instance, as to the new moon element you are currently in is earth and the colour should be yellow, but you can use the colour of your choice, even if it is black or red. Now you should think about what new beginning it is that you desire, or goal you want to recharge. Write down your wishes. Make sure your altar is all set up with the elements represented, for instance earth, air, fire and water.
The Full Moon Ritual Preparation: Find a place that is silent and dedicated. The ritual starts with creating your sacred space: the Moon Circle. The circle is the symbol of your Abyss, and is protective. Your Abyss is your state of mind and imagination . For example use a long ribbon surrounding the place of the ritual. Or the sacred circle can be the circle of participants in the ritual. In the sacred space bring something to place your symbols upon. The circle represents your visible Abyss, the reflection of your state of mind. The circle within represents is the room for you and me and is protective. There you put your symbols, you may use a square table, and clothe it. Recommended symbols are: A moon figure; A goddess statue; A glass of wine; 50
A gemstone of love; Symbols of what you want to dedicate; Text you want to read out loud; Incense; Candles; A picture of someone you want to send energy to; or everything you value at the moment. Now that everything is all set up and you know what your intentions are, you can take a ritual bath with sea salts to cleanse and purify yourself. Prepare to present yourself to the Goddess. After your bath, sitting in front of your altar, you should smudge everything with sage, this will further cleanse you and your altar tools. Now you are ready to start your ritual! Your ritual should be something that is personal and meaningful to you. After your done, ground yourself and close your circle. Some people choose to snuff out their candles and reuse them. I personally feel better letting the candle burn out completely, as I do not want any energies from this ritual to be used in another ritual. Never blow out your candles, simply snuff them out instead.
The Ritual You have to prepare your texts yourselves; however, I strongly recommend you use my own “Office of Atazoth”, or along the outline as such: Opening, welcome. Dedication of the circle. Asking for the presence of the Goddess. Explain each of the symbols. Opening meditation or prayer. Call the powers of the Earth and the angels of the four corners. The lighting of the candles is done The lighting of the incense is done Both events with a little prayer. The special meditation is said. We have made the meditation in a rhyme. Every Full Moon the dedications can be different. 51
Wishes are spoken by everybody. The sending out of energies is expressed. World peace is wished for. Since the wine contains all dedications everybody has to sip the wine. Some silent time to feel the energy and the presence of the Goddess and the Loved Ones. Closing invocation or prayer. Cleaning away, saying: “It is accomplished.” Solemnly leaving by stepping out of the Circle. Take away the circle, which can be done with a song by all participants. Everybody lifts up a part of the circle and sings the Blessing of the Earth song. Take away the symbols. Take away the table.
Agios O Atazoth 52
THE OFFICE OR MASS OF ATAZOTH (Includes Offering of the Chalice)
For daily (dawn; dusk) or “ad libitum” performance either solo or by Priest, Priestess, with or without congregation. It is also suggested to use the rite partly or wholly6 before a sinister meditation if time allows. If the “Offering” as part of the office is considered, a chalice filled with strong wine is required. If there is no “offering”, parts one and three are only to be recited and chanted or vibrated where requested. The altar is covered with a black cloth, and lighted with the usual black candles, while the celebrant is clothed with a black robe. The same applies for the attendants. The Office with Offering is called the Mass of Atazoth. You may hold your tetrahedron quartz crystal in your hands wherever you feel you should do so. The success of this rite depends greatly on your Sinister “intentions” while performing the Office or Mass of Atazoth.
First Part of the Office
Satanas, in adjutorium meum intende. O Satan, take heed, and save me.
Domine Satanas, ad adjuvandum me festina. Lord Satan, make haste to help me.
Dies irae, dies illa Solvet Saeclum in favilla Teste Satan cum sibylla. Quantos tremor est futurus Quando Vindex est venturus Cuncta stricte discussurus. 6
With or without the third part “Offertorium”.
Dies irae, dies illa! Day of wrath and terror looming, Heaven to ash consuming Satan’s true foredooming Ah, what agony of trembling, When Vindex, mankind assembling, Probeth all beyond dissembling Day of wrath and terror looming. The celebrant holds the tetrahedron quartz crystal in his hands, and say as loudly as possible.
Aperiatur terra, et germinet Vindex. Let the Earth be opened, and Vindex come forth.
R. Mirabilia opera tua, Domine Satanas, et anima cogniscit nimis.
Marvellous are Thy works, Lord Satanas, and my soul knows it well. (Chant)
Agios o Vindex7
Non usitata nec tenui ferar Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 7
May be sung thrice, even alternatively in group.
Vates, neque in terris morabor Longius, invidiaque maior Orbis relinquam
Not manipulated nor flying with wings As a wild animal in the air Nor kept in the deep of the earth But his dwelling place fills the whole Orbit. Priestess
Agios Athanatos8 Agios Immortality Priest
Dignum et justum est It is right and fitting (Chant)
Agios o Baphomet O Oriens splendour lucis æternæ Et sol justitiæ: 8
May be sung thrice, even alternatively in group.
Veni et illumina sedentes in tenebris Et umbra mortis9 Agios O Baphomet O Morning Star splendor of eternal light And the sun of righteousness; Come bestow light to them that sit in darkness The shadow of death (Chant)
Agios o Vindex10 (Hymn)
Rerum Atazoth, tenax vigor Immotus in te permanens Lucis diurnae tempora Successibus determinans: Qui venturis es in mundum Atazoth, ne tardaveris
From “Agios” to “mortis” may be sung thrice, even alternatively in group.
May be sung thrice, even alternatively in group.
Atazoth, powerful sustainer Immutable and determining The hours of day and phases Determine: Your arrival in the world Atazoth, do not withhold to come. (Chant)
Agios O Atazoth Lectio brevis:
We swear by war and hatred to stand Hand to hand, and evil for evil with rage. Mark, O Atazoth, and hear us now, Confirming this our Sinister Vow. Priestess
Nocturna lux viantibus A nocte noctem segregans, Praeco diei iam sonat Iubarque solis evocat
Light of the Dawn on the Pilgrims Dividing the night from the night, The announcer now sounds the day Bidding the evocation of the rising sun.
Hoc excitatus Lucifer Solvit polum caligine Agios o Vindex Laetus dies hic transeat.
Now, Lucifer raises Ending the dark night Hallowed be Vindex11 The day is passing ecstatically (joyfully).
Sanctified be Vindex.
Second Part of the Office (ad libitum)
Offertorium Offering strong wine:
“Agios O Atazoth”, Deus, quia de tua largitate accepimus vinum, quod tibi offerimus, fructum vitis et operis manuum hominum, ex quo nobis fiet potus sinistræ. “Ad libitum”, the offering and altar may be incensed. If so, the thurible and incense boat are brought forward and the celebrant thrice sprinkles incense upon the burning coals, saying:
Incensum istud ascendat ad Te, Atazoth, et descendat super nos beneficium Tuum. May this incense rise before Thee, Atazoth, and may blessing descend upon us.
He then takes the thurible and censes the altar and gift(s). First he censes the chalice with three swings widdershins and bows. Then he raises the censer three times towards the Image of the Baphomet, then bows again. Lastly he censes the top and sides of the altar three times, by circumnambulation if the appointments of the temple be convenient. The celebrant now vibrates “Agios O Atazoth” standing facing the altar with the hands over the bread (cakes or fruit) and chalice containing strong wine, and says:
“By our love of life we have this drink, 59
It will become for us a gift from our God Atazoth.” The priest or priestess pursues: R. Invocations to Atazoth, once or more, until something is felt within the celebrant
Agios O Atazoth The celebrant raises the chalice (cup), after which he replaces it on the altar, laying his or her both hands over the chalice, saying convincingly, but quietly:
“Oriens splendour lucis æternæ et sol justitiæ – veni et illumine sedentes in tenebris et umbra mortis.” The priest or priestess while holding the chalice in his or her hands, gives tribute to Satan, and says:
“Suscipe, Satanas, munus quod tibi offerimus, Memoriam recolentes Atazoth.” R. Veni omnipotens æterne diabolus. The celebrant, before eating whatever is found on the paten and drinking from the chalice, before sharing the gifts with others, says:
May the gifts of Satan be forever with you! While drinking from the cup, express silently or audibly (if solo) your wishes and desires in an affirmative way, as if it already happened.
The Third Part of the Office The office of Atazoth (with or without offering) is closed as such: Chanted alternatively, with as much acclamations as required: 60
Agios O Atazoth Agios O Atazoth
Agios O Satanas Agios O Baphomet
Ending the acclamations as such:
Tu autem in médio nostri es, Deus Atazoth, et nomen tuum invocatum est super nos; ne derelinquas nos, Deus Atazoth noster. Thou art with us, O God Atazoth, and Thy name has been invoked on us, abandon us not O God Atazoth.
Pleni sunt terra majestatis gloriæ Tuæ. The whole earth is full of Thy highest glory.
R. Tuere nos, Domine Satanas. Thou art our Lord Satanas.
V. Ave Satanas. R. Ave Satanas. While making the sign of the horn with the left hand, drawing the reverted pentagram in the air:
Ite Missa Est
Or, if only the Office of Atazoth.
Go, you are dismissed, it is accomplished.
R. Satanas auxilium manéat semper nobiscum, et fratibus nostris absentibus.
Artist: Richard Mould (Christos Beest)
Artist: Richard Mould (Christos Beest) 63
Artist: Luis Royo 64
Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo 65
Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo 67
Artist: Luis Royo 69
Artist: Luis Royo (decorating a “Dome” in Moscow)
Artist unknown 76
Artist: Richard Mould (Christos Beest)
Artist: Richard Mould (Christos Beest) 77
Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo 79
Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo 80
Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo 81
Artist: Luis Royo
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Artist: Luis Royo
Artist: Luis Royo
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Greek Gods and Goddesses in General Cosmic Deities These deities or gods presided over the elements of sky, light and heavens. They are related to the periods of the day and night, the winds, clouds, stars and planets. Sky deities are also associated with air, rain, snow and rainbows. Aeolus (Aiolos) - god and ruler of the winds. He was encountered by Odysseus and his crew in the Odyssey. They spent for about a month on his island and became friends with the god. When they departed, Aeolus trapped all the other winds except the one which would lead them to Ithaca. He trapped them inside the box and gave it to Odysseus and told him to not open it. Aether - primeval god of the upper air. He was one of the first-born gods who personified the pure-bright upper air, below Uranus(heaven), that only gods could breath. Anemoi - gods of the winds. Most known were Boreas(god of the north wind and of winter), Eurus (god of the unlucky east or southeast wind), Notus (god of the south wind and bringer of storms and autumn) and Zephyrus (god of the west wind and bringer of light spring in early summer). These were known as the famous Four Winds. However, there were other minor winds also, mostly representing winds of mixed directions, such as north-east and north-west. Arce - messenger of the Titans and twin sister of Iris. She took sides with the Titans and was, after the war, stripped of her wings by Zeus and sent to Tartarus. Astraeus - Titan god of the stars and the art of astrology. He was also the god of the dusk and father of the four winds and the stars of the heaven by Eos (goddess of dawn). Astra Planeti - gods of the five wandering stars or planets. They were known as Phaenon (god of Kronion, the planet Saturn), Phaethon (god of Dios, the planet 98
Jupiter), Pyroeis (god of Areios, the planet Mars), Hesperus (god of Venus, the evening star), Eosphorus (god of Venus, the morning star), and Stilbon (god of Hermaon, the planet Mercury). Aurai - nymphs of the cooling breeze were the daughters of the winds Boreas, Eurus, Notus and Zephyrus. Most known of these was Aura, the goddess of the breeze and the fresh air of early morning. Chaos - the endless form of nothingness, from which everything else sprang. He was the first primeval state of existence who was followed by Erebus, Nyx, Gaea and Eros. Chione - goddess of snow and daughter of Boreas, the wind of the north, and Oreithyia. Chione had a sister Cleopatra and winged brothers Zetes and Kalais. Ersa (Herse) - goddess of the morning dew. She was the daughter of Zeus and Selene and had a sister Pandia. Hemera - primeval goddess of daytime and daylight. She was the daughter of Erebus and Nyx and was a sister and wife of Aether. Hemera was closely related with her mother Nyx, where the two were constantly changing as day and night. Hesperides - three goddesses of the evening and sunset who tended the Hera`s sacred garden in a far western corner of the world, located in Libya or Atlas mountains in North Africa. They were mentioned as the daughters of Atlas or sometimes the daughters of primeval goddess Nyx. They were encountered by Perseus who came for kibsis, the only sack able to contain the Medusa`s head. The Hesperides also featured in the Eleventh labour of Heracles, where the hero had to obtain the golden apples. Iris - goddess of the rainbow and divine messenger of the gods. She was the missing link between the gods and mankind. Iris was also referred as personal messenger of Hera. She traveled with the speed of wind throughout different realms which were heavens, depths of sea, earth and underworld. Menae - goddesses of the fifty lunar months of the four-year period of Olympic games. Their number were fifty which represented each phase of the moon 99
during these four years. It was the basic unit of measurement of time for the Ancient Greeks. Nephelai - nymphs of the clouds and rain. They were originally Oceanid nymphs, daughters of Oceanus, who started bringing water to the heavens in cloud formations. The Nephelai also supported the earth deities and their rivers, springs and other fresh water brothers and sisters by pouring the rains upon them. Pandia - goddess of brightness and the full moon. She was the daughter of Zeus and Selene and had a sister Ersa who was according to some sources interpreted as the same person. Pleiades - goddesses of the constellation Pleiades. But before, they were mountain nymphs and daughters of Atlas and sea-nymph Pleione. Their names were Alcyone, Sterope, Celaeno, Electra, Maia, Merope, and Taygete. They were chased by desirous giant Orion who wanted them at any cost. They were protected by Zeus who placed them among stars, known as the constellation Pleiades. Selene - goddess of moon. She was the daughter of Hyperion and Theia and had a brother Helios and a sister Eos. Her great love was a mortal man called Endymion who was granted immortality and eternal youth by Zeus and was placed in a state of eternal slumber near Mount Latmos, where his bride came every night to consort with him. Uranus - primeval god of the heavens and sky. He was the son and consort of Gaea and from their union came the twelve Titans, three Cyclopes and three Hekatoncheires. Uranus was also responsible for the birth of the Erinyes, Giants, Meliae and Aphrodite, when his blood was spilled upon the earth.
Chthonic Deities These deities or gods are related to the subterranean underworld, where the souls of the dead go. They are also associated with sacrificial rituals, when the cults made offerings to the gods in or beneath the earth itself, by throwing animals into the underground pit and pouring liquids into it. 100
Amphiaraus - war hero of the Seven Against Thebes who was swallowed by Gaea and transformed into oracular spirit of the Underworld. Ascalaphus - son of Acheron and Orphne who was orchardist in the Underworld. After notifying other gods that Persephone had eaten pomegranate, he was in revenge transformed into a screech-owl by Demeter. Charon - ferryman of Hades who was carrying the souls of the dead across the river Styx and Acheron to the underworld. Erebus - primeval god of darkness. He was one of the first-born gods and he encircled the underworld by filling the hollows of the earth. Erinyes - the Furies, goddesses of retribution. They were born from the Uranus` blood spilled on the earth. Their names were Alecto (the unceasing one), Tisiphone (avenger of murder) and Megaera (the jealous one). Hecate - goddess of magic, witchcraft, the night, moon, ghosts and necromancy. She was born to the titans Perses and Asteria. Hecate helped Demeter in search of her daughter Persephone and later, when Persephone was reunited with Demeter, became a minister and companion of Persephone. Judges of the Dead - once sons of Zeus, were given their position after death. Their names were Aiakos (former mortal king of Aegina, guardian of the keys of Hades and judge of the men of Europe), Minos (former mortal king of Crete and judge of the final vote), and Rhadamanthys ( former mortal lawmaker and judge of the men of Asia). Keuthonymos - mysterious underworld spirit who guarded the oxen of Hades. He was the father of Menoites. Lampades - torch-bearing Underworld nymphs who accompanied Hecate on her travels. It is said that they were gift from Zeus to Hecate for siding with the Olympians in the Titanomachy. Most known is Gorgyra (Orphne), a Lampad nymph of Hades and a mother of Ascalaphus Macaria - goddess of blessed death. She was a daughter of Hades. She had the same purpose as Thanatos but, unlike him, she came to reap the souls of the blessed.
Melinoe - underworld goddess who presided over the propitiations offered to the ghosts of the dead. It is said that she was the daughter of Zeus and Persephone. Menoetes - underworld spirit who herded the cattle of Hades. He was encountered by Heracles who crashed his bones, but let him go on the request of Persephone. Nyx - the primeval goddess of night. She was one of the first-born gods and mother of other primeval gods and goddesses such as Aether, Hemera, Moros, Thanatos and more. She was hidden in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. Palici - twin chthonic gods who presided over the geysers and underworld entrance in Sicily. Followers came to their sacred place which was centred around three small lakes that emitted sulphurous vapours. Persephone - originally she was an agricultural goddess of spring growth, but she became bound to the underworld upon eating pomegranate. She became the queen of the underworld and wife of Hades. She spent one third of the year in the underworld with Hades. Tartarus - the primeval god of the dark, personification of deep dark abyss way beyond the Underworld. It was used as a dungeon for tormenting the souls of the worst villans. Thanatos - god of non-violent death or personification of death. He was like the reaper who comes for the souls of the dying people. Thanatos was also a minister of Hades.
Agricultural Deities These deities or gods are related to agricultural rituals, inventions and all knowledge of agriculture that was known to the Greeks at the time. Most of them are also associated with mystery cults, such as Eleusinian mysteries or Arcadian mysteries. Adonis - mortal god of beauty and desire. He was known to be having an endless annual life-death-rebirth cycle and is most known for having 102
relationship with Aphrodite and Persephone. Well, in other words, he was the subject of a quarrel between the goddesses. Aphaea - minor goddess of agriculture and fertility. She was worshiped almost only at a single sanctuary on the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf. Carme - female Cretan spirit who presided over the harvest festival. Carmanor - Cretan harvest semi-god. He was a consort of Demeter with who he had a son Eubuleus. He was later killed by jealous Zeus who had struck him with thunderbolt. Cyamites - semi-god of the beans who had a sanctuary on the sacred road to Eleusis. He was a part of Eleusinian mysteries, where he presided over the cultivation of beans. And his name has been interpreted, as the god of the beans and patron of the bean market. Despoina - goddess of mysteries in Arcadia. The daughter of Poseidon and Demeter also participated in Eleusinian mysteries, although her role in the rites is unknown. Eunostus - goddess of the mills. She was believed to keep watch over the just weight of flour. Persephone - goddess of spring growth who was worshiped alongside Demeter in the Eleusinian mysteries. She was also the wife of Hades and Queen of the Underworld. Despite living in the realm of the dead, she was allowed to spend two thirds of the year with her mother. Philomelus - agricultural semi-god inventor of the wagon and the plough. He was a son of Demeter and Iasion and had a brother Plutus who was very rich, but didn`t want to share his wealth with anyone, even his family. Philomenus then bought two oxen and supported himself by inventing a plough to work his fields and cultivating crops. He also invented the wagon which helped him moving the crops. Plutus - god of wealth, including agricultural wealth. He was also the son of Demeter and Iasion. He was regarded as the divine child in the theology of the Eleusinian mysteries. 103
Health Deities These deities of gods are related with healing, health and wellbeing. They are also associated with maintaining good health and preventing or curing illnesses, diseases and afflictions. Aceso - goddess of the healing process. She was represented for healing wounds and curing illnesses. It was also believed that she was the daughter of Asclepius and Epione. Aegle - goddess of radiant good health. She was also the daughter of of Asclepius and Epione and attendant of her father. Asclepius - god of medicine and healing. The son of Apollo and Coronis was raised by centaur called Chiron, after Hermes cut him from her mother`s body while she was already aflame. Throughout his boyhood and early manhood, he perfected his skills in medicine to the point, where he was able to restore life from death. However, he was destroyed by Zeus` thunderbolt, because this was a crime against natural order. After his death, he was placed among stars as the constellation Ophiochus. Epione - goddess of the soothing of pain. She was the wife of Asclepius and mother of Aceso, Hygieia, Iaso and Panacea. Hygieia - goddess of cleanliness and good health. She was the daughter of Asclepius and Epione and, when needed, served her father as attendant. She was also noted as a companion of Aphrodite. Hygieia was also associated with rather prevention of sickness than curing it. In other words, she took good care of hygiene and maintained good health. Iaso - goddess of recuperation from illness. She was also a goddess of cures, remedies and practices of healing. Unlike her sister Hygieia, she showed up when health was compromised and restored it. Paeon - physician of the Olympian gods. He was most occupied during the wars, when he healed their wounds and injuries caused by other deities. Panacea - goddess of universal remedy. She was also a daughter of Asclepius and Epione and served her father as an attendant. 104
Telesphorus - semi-god of convalescence who completed the process of recovery from illness or injury.
Rustic Deities These deities or gods are closely associated with having the power over the elements of nature. They are related with forests, mountains, plains, pastures, plantations and animals that come along with the nature. Aetna - nymph goddess of the volcano Mount Etna in Sicily. She was the daughter of Uranus and Gaea and the mother of thermal geysers. Anthousai - female flower nymphs. They were hanging out wherever flowers could be found. They had the ability to turn themselves into flowers. Aristaeus - god of bee-keeping, honey-making and olive-growing. He was also the god of herding, cheese-making and hunting. It is said that he was a son of Apollo and nymph Cyrene. Attis - god of vegetation whom ever-repeating cycle of self-consumption, death and resurrection represented the cycle of the fruits of the earth. He was a consort of Cybele who made him to castrate himself as a punishment for his infidelity. Britomartis - goddess of hunting and trapping. She was once a huntress in Crete, where Minos was trying to seduce her. She, however, was able to escape him by running the length of the whole island and jumped from the cliff into the sea, where she was trapped by fish nets. She was saved by Artemis who liked her brave and instinctful nature. Artemis later made her a goddess. Cabeiri - twin gods who presided over the dancing orgies of the Mysteries on the islands of Lemnos and Samothrace which were held in honor to Demeter, Persephone and Hecate. They were a dwarf-like beings, sons of Hephaestus and were a skilled metal-workers who helped their father at his forge. Chloris - goddess of new growth and flowers. She was wife of Zephyrus and allegedly dwelled in Elysian Fields.
Comus - god of festivity and revelry. He was the son of Dionysus and served his father as a cup-bearer. Corymbus - god of the fruits of the ivy. He accompanied Dionysus in his Bacchic orgies. Curetes (Cretan) - youth rustic spirits who guarded infant Zeus on Mount Aigaion, when Gaea hid him below the surface to prevent his discovery from his father Cronus. Cybele - Phrygian mother goddess who was worshiped in western and central Anatolia. For the locals she had the same meaning as Rhea, the mother of gods. Dactyls (fingers) - minor deities, originally representing fingers of a hand. They served Rhea just as the fingers serve the hand. They were hard workers and were skilled iron and fire. Dryades - forest nymphs of trees, specifically oak trees. Normally, they were very shy, but were good friends with Artemis and often came to accompany her in the forest. Gaea - primeval goddess of the earth. She was the daughter of Chaos(universe) and mother of Uranus(heavens), Pontus(sea) and Tartarus(dungeon deep below the earth). With Uranus, she also gave birth to twelve titans, three Hekatoncheries and three Cyclopes, and first sea-gods with Pontus. Gaea was also the mother of various spirits and creatures. Epimeliades - nymphs of the sheep and highland pastures. They protected the sheep flocks and goat herds. Hamadryades - spirits who were connected with the trees. It is said that they actually lived inside a tree and if the tree died, the Hamadryad associated with it also died. Hecaterus - god of the hekateris, the rustic dance of quickly moving hands. He fathered five Dactyls and five Hekaterides. Horae (hours)- goddesses of natural order and justice. However, they were originally represented as personifications of different seasons. 106
Korybantes - armed and the crested dancers who worshipped Cybele and were a part of ritual dances, where they were together clashing shields and spears. Maenades - female followers in the retinue of Dionysus. They travelled alone and were gathering tribute to her god. If tribute was not given, they casted a spell of "frenzy" on these people which left them with intoxication and therefore uncontrollable sexual desire and loss of senses. Meliae - nymphs ash tree and honey. It is believed that they were born out of Uranus` blood spilled upon Gaea. Nymphai Hyperboreioi - three Hyperborean nymphs who presided over aspects of archery. They were worshiped on the island of Delos and were attendants of Artemis. Their names were Hekaerge (represented distancing), Loxo (represented trajectory) and Oupis (represented aim). Oreades - mountain, valley and ravine nymphs. Most known were Adrasteia, a nursemaid of the infant Zeus, and Echo, a nymph cursed never to speak except to repeat the words of others. Ourea - primeval gods of mountains. They were one of the first-born children of Gaea and it is said that every mountain had its own Ourea god or goddess. Most known are Aetna, Olympus and Oreios(god of mount Othrys) Pan - god of the wild, shepherds, pastures, hunting and rustic music. He could be seen in the company of nymphs, panes and satyrs. Priapus - god of fertility. He was protector of the fruits, livestock, gardens, bees, vine and male genitals. Priapus is said to be the son of either Hermes or Dionysus and Aphrodite. Silenus - old rustic god of the dance and drunkenness. He accompanied Dionysus on his journeys and was the god`s tutor of winemaking. Telete - goddess of initiation into the Bacchic rituals. She was a daughter of Dionysus and served and accompanied her father. She was associated with night-time parties and orgies.
Zagreus - god of the Orphic mysteries. He was a son of Zeus and Demeter who made love in the shape of a serpent.
Water Deities These deities or gods had the power to control the elements of water and presided over all the fresh and salt water of the earth. They are associated with seas, sea-storms, waves, currents, sea-creatures, lakes, springs, rivers, fountains, marshes and ground waters. Aegaeon - god of violent sea storms. He is referred as the son of Briareus, one of the three Hekatoncheires. During Titanomachy, Aegaeon was the ally of the Titans. Achelous - the god of the river Achelous who was the greatest and the oldest river of Ancient Greece. He was the son of Oceanus and Tethys and was represented as the god of fresh water in general. Amphitrite - wife of Poseidon and the Queen of the seas. She was the personification of the sea itself and was a mother of dolphins, seals and fish. Amphitrite was thought to be the daughter of Nereus and Doris which would put her among Nereids. Benthesikyme - goddess of the waves who presided over the sea of Ethiopia. She was the daughter of Poseidon and Amphitrite or the wife of King Enalos of Ethiopia. Brizo - patron goddess of sailors and fishermen. She was also a prophet who specialized for interpreting dreams. Ceto - goddess of the dangers of the sea. She was the daughter of Gaea and Pontus. Ceto was also more specifically identified as the goddess of the sharks, whales and sea monsters. Cymopoleia - goddess of the violent sea currents and waves during storms. She was a daughter of Poseidon and was married to Briareus, one of the Hekatoncheires. 108
Delphin - the leader of the dolphins who served Poseidon in his search and persuasion of Amphitrite. For his services, he was placed among stars, known as the constellation Delphin. Eidothea - prophetic sea nymph who instructed Menelaus how to capture her father Proteus, in order for the god to reveal him the escape from the island of Pharos, where Menelaus was trapped. Glaucus - prophetic sea-god who protected sailors and fishermen in difficult times during storms. He was once a mortal, but was transformed into a sea-god after eating a magical herb. Hydrus - primeval god of waters who had, according to some sources, emerged from Chaos alongside Gaea. Leucothea - sea goddess who aided sailors in distress prayers. She was once a mortal princess called Ino and was the daughter of Cadmus. Ino was punished by Hera for looking after the infant Dionysus. The goddess made her to leap into the sea from a cliff. She was then, by the Olympian gods, renamed into Leucothea and transformed into sea goddess. Naiads - fresh water nymphs who presided over fresh water supplies of the earth, such as springs, rivers, lakes, fountains and marshes. They were classified into five groups, known as Pegaeae(springs), Potameides (rivers), Limnades(lakes), Crinaeae(fountains), and Eleionomae(marshes) Nereides sea nymphs who presided over the Mediterranean Sea. They were particularly associated with Aegean Sea, where they had dwelled in the depths of the sea, inside silver cave. Most notable were Thetis (the leader of the Nereids), Amphitrite (the one who left the Nereids to become wife of Poseidon and the Queen of the seas), and Arethusa (she transformed herself into a stream on the island of Ortygia in order to escape river-god Alpheus). Nereus - the Old Man of the Sea who had the power of the prophecy and shapeshifting. He was the eldest son of Pontus and Gaea, born in titans generation. Nereus was the father of Nereids by Doris. Nerites - young sea-god who Aphrodite fell in love with. Upon rejecting the goddess to join her at Olympus, Aphrodite turned him into shell-fish. 109
Oceanides - three thousand fresh water nymphs, the daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. They presided over all the fresh water on earth and were separated into three groups, known as Naiads (spring, fountain, river, lake nymphs), Aurai (breeze nymphs), and Nephelai (cloud and rain nymphs), where the last two became more associated with Sky deities. Palaemon - young sea-god, the protector of the sailors in danger. His mortal name was Melicertes whose parents enraged Hera by taking care of young Dionysus. His mother Ino leapt into the death with him. He along his mother was transformed into a sea-god by the Olympians. He was renamed into Palaemon, while his mother Ino became Leucothea. Phorcys - primeval sea-god of the hidden dangers of the deep. He was the son of Pontus and Gaea and was married to Ceto, with whom he was the father of sea monster Scylla, draconian Ladon and the three Gorgons. Pontus - primeval god of the sea. He was one of the first-born gods and was the father of the most of the ancient sea gods by Gaea. With his consort Thalassa, they presided over the seas, fish and other sea creatures. Potamoi- three thousand river gods, born to Oceanus and Tethys. They were brothers of Oceanids and husbands of Naiads. Most known were Achelous (river Achelous in central Greece) Acis (river of Sicily) Acheron (river of Pain), Asopus (river of Boeotia), Cocytus (river of Wailing), Lethe (river of Oblivion), Phlegethon (river of Fire), Styx (river of Hatred), Scamander (river of Troy in Anatolia). Proteus - ancient sea-god with the power of prophecy and shape-shifting. He was the herdsman of Poseidon's seals and was associated with the island of Lemnos. Sirens - sea nymphs who drew sailors to their death with their enchanting song. Originally they were attendants and maids of Persephone, but when Hades abducted her, Demeter gave them the bodies of birds in order for them to help with the search. The Sirens was encountered by Odysseus on his journey back to Ithaca, and previously by Jason and the Argonauts. Telchines - mysterious sea-magician spirits, related to the island of Rhodes. They were four brothers, descendants of Pontus and Gaea. It is said that they had crafted the sickle, with which Cronus castrated his father Uranus. In the end, 110
they were casted to Tartarus by Zeus who was angered by their malevolent use of magic. Thalassa - primeval spirit of the sea. She was a consort of Pontus, with whom she presided over the seas. Thaumas - god of the wonders of the sea. He was the descendant of Pontus and Gaea. He was married with an Oceanid called Electra, with whom he fathered Iris (goddess of rainbow), Arce and Harpies. Thoosa - goddess of swiftness. She is associated with swift currents of the sea. She was loved by Poseidon, with whom she gave birth to Polyphemus, the oneeyed cyclop. Triteia - fresh water nymph of the local spring of the town Triteia. She was the daughter of Triton and was a companion of Ares, with whom she gave birth to Melanippus. Triton - the god and messenger of the sea. He was son of Poseidon and his only wife Amphitrite. He is depicted and represented as a merman, with an upper body of a man and tail of a fish. According to Hesiod, he dwelt in a golden palace in the depths of the sea beneath Aegean Sea.
The Olympians In Greek mythology, the Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheo were the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, residing atop a mythical Mount Olympus. The Olympians gained their supremacy in a war of gods in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the Titans. The concept of the "Twelve Gods" is older than any extant Greek or Roman sources, and is likely of Anatolian origin. The gods meet in council in the Homeric epics, but the first ancient reference to religious ceremonies for the Olympians collectively is found in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. The Greek cult of the Twelve Olympians can be traced to 6th-century BC Athens and probably has no precedent in the Mycenaean period. The altar to the Twelve Olympians at Athens is usually dated to the archonship of the younger Pesistratos, in 522/521 BC.
Hades, known in the Eleusinian tradition as Pluto, was not usually included among the Olympians because his realm was the underworld. Plato connected the Twelve Olympians with the twelve months, and implies that he considered Pluto one of the twelve in proposing that the final month be devoted to him and the spirits of the dead. In Phaedrus Plato aligns the Twelve with the Zodiac and would exclude Hestia from their rank. In ancient Greek religion, the "Olympian Gods" and the "Cults of Twelve Gods" were often relatively distinct concepts. The Dodekatheon of Herodotus included Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hermes, Athena, Apollo, Alpheus, Cronus, Rhea and the Charites. Herodotus also mentions that Heracles was included as one of the Twelve by some. At Kos, Heracles and Dionysus are added to the Twelve, and Ares and Hephaestus are not. For Pindar, the Bibliotheca, and Herodorus, Heracles is not one of the Twelve Gods, but the one who established their cult. Lucian (2nd century AD) includes Heracles and Asclepius as members of the Twelve, without explaining which two had to give way for them. Hebe, Helios, Eros, Selene and Persephone are other important gods and goddesses who are sometimes included in a group of twelve. Eros is often depicted alongside the other twelve, especially his mother Aphrodite, but not usually counted in their number. The Roman poet Ennius gives the Roman equivalents as six male-female complements, preserving the place of Vesta (Greek Hestia), who played a crucial role in Roman religion as a state goddess maintained by the Vestals. There was some variation as to which deities were included, but the canonical twelve as commonly portrayed in art and poetry were:
Bibliography Our EBooks of interest on WordPress https://gayatrimeditationcentre.wordpress.com/ Artwork by Luis Royo and son, my favourite artist (the author has all their books. The books can be purchased at Amazon. Luis Royo Website: http://www.artgalleryartist.com/luis-royo/
Contents Foreword from the Author The Dark Moon Mysteries - Foreword Mythology Archetypes Gods and Goddesses in Everyone Nyx, Goddess of Night and the “Daughters of Night” Family Tree of Goddess Nyx The Legendary Nyx, Goddess of Night and the “Daughters of Night” A Prayer to Goddess Nyx A Jewish scholar Mory Sofer in his book “Questioning the Bible” Short review The Daughters of Night Nemesis, The Erinyes, The Hesperides in Full The Erinyes The Furies (Erinyes) and Hades The Role of the Furies (Erinyes) “The Furies” by Aeschylus, and the Powers of the Furies (Erinyes) Furies (Erinyes) – Matricide and Patricide Mythology of the Furies (Erinyes) – The Harpies Mythology of the Furies (Erinyes) - Orestes The Furies (Erinyes) – The Eumenideia 115
Invocations to the Furies (Erinyes) Furies Family Tree and Genealogy and Erinyes Grimoire The Hesperides and the Eleventh Labour of Hercules The Eleventh Labour of Hercules Traditional Moon Goddess Ritual The Office or Mass of Atazoth (Includes Offering of the Chalice) Illustrated part: The Mysteries of the Dark Moon in Woman’s Life Greek Gods and Goddesses in General – Cosmic Deities Chthonic Deities Agricultural Deities Health Deities Rustic Deities Water Deities The Olympians Bibliography Contents